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Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Editor: Joseph N. Mait
  • Vol. 50, Iss. 31 — Nov. 1, 2011
  • pp: 5949–5956

Numerical method to optimize the polar-azimuthal orientation of infrared superconducting-nanowire single-photon detectors

Mária Csete, Áron Sipos, Faraz Najafi, Xiaolong Hu, and Karl K. Berggren  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 50, Issue 31, pp. 5949-5956 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.50.005949


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Abstract

A finite-element method for calculating the illumination-dependence of absorption in three-dimensional nanostructures is presented based on the radio frequency module of the Comsol Multiphysics software package (Comsol AB). This method is capable of numerically determining the optical response and near-field distribution of subwavelength periodic structures as a function of illumination orientations specified by polar angle, φ, and azimuthal angle, γ. The method was applied to determine the illumination-angle-dependent absorptance in cavity-based superconducting-nanowire single-photon detector (SNSPD) designs. Niobium-nitride stripes based on dimensions of conventional SNSPDs and integrated with ∼ quarter-wavelength hydrogen-silsesquioxane-filled nano-optical cavity and covered by a thin gold film acting as a reflector were illuminated from below by p-polarized light in this study. The numerical results were compared to results from complementary transfer-matrix-method calculations on composite layers made of analogous film-stacks. This comparison helped to uncover the optical phenomena contributing to the appearance of extrema in the optical response. This paper presents an approach to optimizing the absorptance of different sensing and detecting devices via simultaneous numerical optimization of the polar and azimuthal illumination angles.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(040.3060) Detectors : Infrared
(040.5160) Detectors : Photodetectors
(040.5570) Detectors : Quantum detectors
(220.4830) Optical design and fabrication : Systems design
(240.6680) Optics at surfaces : Surface plasmons
(050.6624) Diffraction and gratings : Subwavelength structures

ToC Category:
Detectors

History
Original Manuscript: May 26, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: June 23, 2011
Published: October 25, 2011

Citation
Mária Csete, Áron Sipos, Faraz Najafi, Xiaolong Hu, and Karl K. Berggren, "Numerical method to optimize the polar-azimuthal orientation of infrared superconducting-nanowire single-photon detectors," Appl. Opt. 50, 5949-5956 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-50-31-5949


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References

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