OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: Joseph N. Mait
  • Vol. 51, Iss. 15 — May. 20, 2012
  • pp: 2772–2777

Direct airborne acoustic wave modulation of Fabry–Perot fiber laser (FPFL) over 100 kHz of operating bandwidth

Chang Hong Pua, Harith Ahmad, Sulaiman Wadi Harun, and Richard M. De La Rue  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 51, Issue 15, pp. 2772-2777 (2012)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (695 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



The idea of applying a simple Fabry–Perot fiber laser (FPFL) set-up in a free-running condition as an acoustic sensing medium is proposed. Conventional optical microphone requires a stringently aligned diaphragm to mediate the acoustic impedance mismatch between air and silica fiber. Motivated by the difficulty of optical sensing of airborne acoustic waves, a new sensing method is proposed to sense acoustic waves without the assistance of a diaphragm as transducer. By studying the output power fluctuation of the FPFL, the operating bandwidth and sensitivity of the proposed sensing method are determined. The tunability of the resonant frequency from 5 kHz to 85 kHz allows sensing of acoustic waves in the range of 100 Hz to 100 kHz. Tuning of the resonant frequency can be performed by changing the optical pumping power from as low as 10 mW to 68.5 mW or higher.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(190.3100) Nonlinear optics : Instabilities and chaos
(280.4788) Remote sensing and sensors : Optical sensing and sensors

ToC Category:
Nonlinear Optics

Original Manuscript: September 28, 2011
Revised Manuscript: January 19, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: February 9, 2012
Published: May 11, 2012

Chang Hong Pua, Harith Ahmad, Sulaiman Wadi Harun, and Richard M. De La Rue, "Direct airborne acoustic wave modulation of Fabry–Perot fiber laser (FPFL) over 100 kHz of operating bandwidth," Appl. Opt. 51, 2772-2777 (2012)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. Z. Wang, Y. Hu, Z. Meng, and M. Ni, “Fiber-optic hydrophone using a cylindrical Helmholtz resonator as a mechanical anti-aliasing filter,” Opt. Lett. 33, 37–39 (2008). [CrossRef]
  2. T. Fu, Q. Li, Y. Liu, and J. Leng, “A novel embedded fiber optic acoustic emission sensor and its applications for monitoring failures of composite laminates,” in Smart Sensor Phenomena, Technology, Networks, and Systems 2009 (SPIE, 2009), 72931 A–72938.
  3. N. Bilaniuk, “Optical microphone transduction techniques,” Appl. Acoust. 50, 35–63 (1997). [CrossRef]
  4. J. H. Cole, R. L. Johnson, and P. G. Bhuta, “Fiber-optic detection of sound,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 62, 1136–1138 (1977). [CrossRef]
  5. L. Kruger and H. J. Theron, “Optical fibre Mach-Zehnder microphone,” in Microwave and Optoelectronics Conference 2007 (IMOC 2007) (SBMO/IEEE MTT-S International, 2007), 389–391.
  6. D. Wiesler, H. Wen, A. B. Tveten, B. Danver, and A. Dandridge, “Fiber optic ultrasound sensors for medical imaging applications,” in Optical Fiber Sensors, OSA Technical Digest Series, (Optical Society of America, 1997) .
  7. V. Kondakov, N. Meshcheryakov, and Y. Pod’yapol’skii, “A fiber-optics sensor for monitoring vibration in the bearings of large stationary plant,” Meas. Tech. 42, 897–901 (1999). [CrossRef]
  8. A. Laudati, F. Mennella, M. Giordano, G. D’Altrui, C. C. Tassini, and A. Cusano, “A fiber-optic Bragg grating seismic sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1991–1993 (2007). [CrossRef]
  9. J. K. Holger, C. O. Paschereit, and I. Röhle, “A fiber-optical microphone based on a Fabry–Perot interferometer applied for thermo-acoustic measurements,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 015302 (2010). [CrossRef]
  10. S. W. Løvseth, J. T. Kringlebotn, E. Rønnekleiv, and K. Bløtekjær, “Fiber distributed-feedback lasers used as acoustic sensors in air,” Appl. Opt. 38, 4821–4830 (1999). [CrossRef]
  11. T. Iida, K. Nakamura, and S. Ueha, “A microphone array using fiber Bragg gratings,” in Vol. 1 of Optical Fiber Sensors Conference (OFS 2002) Technical Digest (IEEE, 2002), 239–242.
  12. C. H. Pua, S. F. Norizan, S. W. Harun, and H. Ahmad, “Non-membrane optical microphone based on longitudinal modes competition,” Sens. Actuators A 168, 281–285 (2011). [CrossRef]
  13. A. E. Siegman, “Laser spiking and mode competition,” in Lasers (University Science Books, 1986).
  14. A. E. Siegman, “Laser Q-Switching,” in Lasers (University Science Books, 1986).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited