We develop an analytical approach to refractive, blazed diffractive, and achromatic x-ray lenses of scalable dimensions for energies from 1 to 20 keV. Based on the parabolic wave equation, their wideband imaging properties are compared and optimized for a given spectral range. Low-Z lens materials for massive cores and rugged alternatives, such as polycarbonate or Si for flat Fresnel components, are investigated with respect to their suitability for diffraction-limited high-energy astronomy. Properly designed “hybrid” combinations can serve as an approach to x-ray telescopes with an enhanced efficiency throughout the whole considered band, nearly regardless of their inherent absorption.
© 2012 Optical Society of America
Original Manuscript: March 23, 2012
Revised Manuscript: May 3, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: May 7, 2012
Published: July 2, 2012
Christoph Braig and Peter Predehl, "Toward the diffraction limit with transmissive x-ray lenses in astronomy," Appl. Opt. 51, 4638-4659 (2012)