OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Editor: Joseph N. Mait
  • Vol. 51, Iss. 30 — Oct. 20, 2012
  • pp: 7246–7254

Heterodyne efficiency of a coherent free-space optical communication model through atmospheric turbulence

Yongxiong Ren, Anhong Dang, Ling Liu, and Hong Guo  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 51, Issue 30, pp. 7246-7254 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.51.007246


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (495 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

The heterodyne efficiency of a coherent free-space optical (FSO) communication model under the effects of atmospheric turbulence and misalignment is studied in this paper. To be more general, both the transmitted beam and local oscillator beam are assumed to be partially coherent based on the Gaussian Schell model (GSM). By using the derived analytical form of the cross-spectral function of a GSM beam propagating through atmospheric turbulence, a closed-form expression of heterodyne efficiency is derived, assuming that the propagation directions for the transmitted and local oscillator beams are slightly different. Then the impacts of atmospheric turbulence, configuration of the two beams (namely, beam radius and spatial coherence width), detector radius, and misalignment angle over heterodyne efficiency are examined. Numerical results suggest that the beam radius of the two overlapping beams can be optimized to achieve a maximum heterodyne efficiency according to the turbulence conditions and the detector radius. It is also found that atmospheric turbulence conditions will significantly degrade the efficiency of heterodyne detection, and compared to fully coherent beams, partially coherent beams are less sensitive to the changes in turbulence conditions and more robust against misalignment at the receiver.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(010.1330) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Atmospheric turbulence
(010.3310) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Laser beam transmission
(060.2605) Fiber optics and optical communications : Free-space optical communication
(060.2840) Fiber optics and optical communications : Heterodyne

ToC Category:
Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics

History
Original Manuscript: July 2, 2012
Revised Manuscript: August 30, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: September 3, 2012
Published: October 16, 2012

Citation
Yongxiong Ren, Anhong Dang, Ling Liu, and Hong Guo, "Heterodyne efficiency of a coherent free-space optical communication model through atmospheric turbulence," Appl. Opt. 51, 7246-7254 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-51-30-7246


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. X. M. Zhu and J. M. Kahn, “Free-space optical communication through atmospheric turbulence channels,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 50, 1293–1300 (2002). [CrossRef]
  2. L. C. Andrews and R. L. Phillips, Laser Beam Propagation Through Random Media, 2nd ed. (SPIE, 2005).
  3. D. L. Fried, “Optical heterodyne detection of an atmospherically distorted signal wave front,” Proc. IEEE 55, 57–67 (1967). [CrossRef]
  4. K. Kiasaleh, “Performance of coherent DPSK free-space optical communication systems in K-distributed turbulence,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 54, 604–607 (2006). [CrossRef]
  5. A. Belmonte and J. M. Kahn, “Performance of synchronous optical receivers using atmospheric compensation techniques,” Opt. Express 16, 14151–14162 (2008). [CrossRef]
  6. K. Tanaka and N. Ohta, “Effects of tilt and offset of signal field on heterodyne efficiency,” Appl. Opt. 26, 627–632(1987). [CrossRef]
  7. M. Salem and J. P. Rolland, “Heterodyne efficiency of a detection system for partially coherent beams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 27, 1111–1119 (2010). [CrossRef]
  8. T. Takenaka, K. Tanaka, and O. Fukumitsu, “Signal-to-noise ratio in optical heterodyne detection for Gaussian fields,” Appl. Opt. 17, 3466–3471 (1978). [CrossRef]
  9. J. Salzman and A. Katzir, “Heterodyne detection SNR: calculations with matrix formalism,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1066–1074 (1984). [CrossRef]
  10. K. K. Das, K. M. Iftekharuddin, and A. Mohammad, “Improved heterodyne mixing efficiency and signal-to-noise ratio with an array of hexagonal detectors,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7023–7026 (1997). [CrossRef]
  11. K. Tanaka and N. Saga, “Maximum heterodyne efficiency of optical heterodyne detection in the presence of background radiation,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3901–3904(1984). [CrossRef]
  12. T. Tanaka, M. Taguchi, and K. Tanaka, “Heterodyne efficiency for a partially coherent optical signal,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5391–5394 (1992). [CrossRef]
  13. D. M. Chambers, “Modeling heterodyne efficiency for coherent laser radar in the presence of aberrations,” Opt. Express 1, 60–67 (1997). [CrossRef]
  14. M. S. Belenkii, “Effect of atmospheric turbulence on heterodyne lidar performance,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5368–5372 (1993). [CrossRef]
  15. R. G. Frehlich and J. M. Kavaya, “Coherent laser radar performance for general atmospheric refractive turbulence,” Appl. Opt. 30, 5325–5352 (1991). [CrossRef]
  16. S. F. Clifford and S. Wandzura, “Monostatic heterodyne lidar performance: the effect of the turbulent atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 20, 514–516 (1981). [CrossRef]
  17. G. Guérit, P. Drobinski, P. H. Flamant, and B. Augère, “Analytical empirical expressions of the transverse coherence properties for monostatic and bistatic lidars in the presence of moderate atmospheric refractive-index turbulence,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4275–4285 (2001). [CrossRef]
  18. A. Belmonte, “Analyzing the efficiency of a practical heterodyne lidar in the turbulent atmosphere: telescope parameters,” Opt. Express 11, 2041–2046 (2003). [CrossRef]
  19. L. Mandel and E. Wolf, Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics (Cambridge University, 1995).
  20. M. Toyoshima, H. Takenaka, Y. Shoji, Y. Takayama, Y. Koyama, and H. Kunimori, “Polarization measurements through space-to-ground atmospheric propagation paths by using a highly polarized laser source in space,” Opt. Express 17, 22333–22340 (2009). [CrossRef]
  21. J. C. Ricklin and F. M. Davidson, “Atmospheric turbulence effects on a partially coherent Gaussian beam: implications for free-space laser communication,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1794–1802 (2002). [CrossRef]
  22. H. T. Yura, “Mutual coherence function of a finite cross section optical beam propagating in a turbulent medium,” Appl. Opt. 11, 1399–1406 (1972). [CrossRef]
  23. I. S. Gradshteyn and I. M. Ryzhik, Table of Integrals, Series, and Products, 7th ed. (Academic, 2008).
  24. G. N. Watson, A Treatise on the Theory of Bessel Functions (Cambridge University, 1962).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited