OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: Joseph N. Mait
  • Vol. 53, Iss. 10 — Apr. 1, 2014
  • pp: 2145–2151

Use of signal decomposition to compensate for respiratory disturbance in mainstream capnometer

Jiachen Yang, Haitao Wang, Bobo Chen, Bin Wang, and Lei Wang  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 53, Issue 10, pp. 2145-2151 (2014)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (539 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



End-tidal carbon dioxide (PETCO2) monitoring has become an important tool in clinical monitoring, but there are still limitations in practice. Low-frequency modulation was used to reliably acquire respiratory information. Then the disturbances of humidity and flow rate were removed by signal decomposition. Finally, the real-time concentration of CO2 was calculated and displayed by an adjusted calibration function. Targeted experiments confirm that a period of 180 ms and a depth of 50% was the optimal choice. In this case, the effects of humidity and flow rate reflected by different components were removed effectively from the capnography. This capnometer obtains capnography with excellent accuracy and stability in long-term continuous monitoring.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(040.5160) Detectors : Photodetectors
(120.3890) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Medical optics instrumentation
(120.4640) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Optical instruments
(170.4090) Medical optics and biotechnology : Modulation techniques

ToC Category:
Medical Optics and Biotechnology

Original Manuscript: December 27, 2013
Revised Manuscript: February 24, 2014
Manuscript Accepted: February 24, 2014
Published: March 28, 2014

Virtual Issues
Vol. 9, Iss. 6 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Jiachen Yang, Haitao Wang, Bobo Chen, Bin Wang, and Lei Wang, "Use of signal decomposition to compensate for respiratory disturbance in mainstream capnometer," Appl. Opt. 53, 2145-2151 (2014)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. E. Qvigstad, J. Kramer-Johansen, Ø. Tømte, T. Skålhegg, Ø. Sørensen, K. Sunde, and T. M. Olasveengen, “Clinical pilot study of different hand positions during manual chest compressions monitored with capnography,” Resuscitation 84, 1203–1207 (2013). [CrossRef]
  2. E. Scarth and T. Cook, “Capnography during cardiopulmonary resuscitation,” Resuscitation 83, 789–790 (2012). [CrossRef]
  3. O. Cinar, Y. A. Acar, İ. Arziman, E. Kilic, Y. E. Eyi, and R. Ocal, “Can mainstream end-tidal carbon dioxide measurement accurately predict the arterial carbon dioxide level of patients with acute dyspnea in ED,” Am. J. Emerg. Med. 30, 358–361 (2012). [CrossRef]
  4. M. B. Jaffe and J. Orr, “Continuous monitoring of respiratory flow and Co2,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 29(2), 44–52 (2010). [CrossRef]
  5. D. Sakata, I. Matsubara, N. Gopalakrishnan, D. Westenskow, J. White, S. Yamamori, T. Egan, and N. Pace, “Flow-through versus sidestream capnometry for detection of end tidal carbon dioxide in the sedated patient,” J. Clin. Monitor. Comp. 23, 115–122 (2009). [CrossRef]
  6. M. Berggren, “Improved response time with a new miniaturised main-stream multigas monitor,” J. Clin. Monitor. Comp. 23, 355–361 (2009). [CrossRef]
  7. G. Dooly, J. Clifford, G. Leen, and E. Lewis, “Mid-infrared point sensor for in situ monitoring of Co2 emissions from large-scale engines,” Appl. Opt. 51, 7636–7642 (2012). [CrossRef]
  8. A. Pal, R. Sen, K. Bremer, S. Yao, E. Lewis, T. Sun, and K. T. Grattan, “All-fiber tunable laser in the 2 μm region, designed for Co2 detection,” Appl. Opt. 51, 7011–7015 (2012). [CrossRef]
  9. M. Folke and B. Hök, “A new capnograph based on an electro acoustic sensor,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 46, 55–59 (2008). [CrossRef]
  10. Z. Zhu, Y. Xu, and B. Jiang, “A one ppm NDIR methane gas sensor with single frequency filter denoising algorithm,” Sensors 12, 12729–12740 (2012). [CrossRef]
  11. J. Yang, H. Wang, B. Wang, and L. Wang, “Accurate and stable continuous monitoring module by mainstream capnography,” J. Clin. Monitor. Comp.1–7 (2013). [CrossRef]
  12. M. P. Phelan, J. P. Ornato, M. A. Peberdy, and F. M. Hustey, “Appropriate documentation of confirmation of endotracheal tube position and relationship to patient outcome from in-hospital cardiac arrest,” Resuscitation 84, 31–36 (2013). [CrossRef]
  13. G. M. Schmölzer, D. A. Poulton, J. A. Dawson, C. O. F. Kamlin, C. J. Morley, and P. G. Davis, “Assessment of flow waves and colorimetric Co2 detector for endotracheal tube placement during neonatal resuscitation,” Resuscitation 82, 307–312 (2011). [CrossRef]
  14. M. S. A. Raheem and O. M. Wahba, “A nasal catheter for the measurement of end-tidal carbon dioxide in spontaneously breathing patients: a preliminary evaluation,” Anesth. Analg. 110, 1039–1042 (2010). [CrossRef]
  15. C. Gu, R. Li, H. Zhang, A. Fung, C. Torres, S. Jiang, and C. Li, “Accurate respiration measurement using dc-coupled continuous-wave radar sensor for motion-adaptive cancer radiotherapy,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 59, 3117–3123 (2012). [CrossRef]
  16. J. C. M. Antón and M. Silva-López, “Optical cavity for auto-referenced gas detection,” Opt. Express 19, 26079–26087 (2011). [CrossRef]
  17. S. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Rajamani, and B. D. Johnson, “Dynamic model inversion techniques for breath-by-breath measurement of carbon dioxide from low bandwidth sensors,” IEEE Sens. J. 10, 1637–1646 (2010). [CrossRef]
  18. Y. Yang, Z. Gao, D. Zhong, and W. Lin, “Detection of nitrogen dioxide using an external modulation diode laser,” Appl. Opt. 52, 3027–3030 (2013). [CrossRef]
  19. S. Xu and M. Chen, “Design and modeling of non-linear infrared transducer for measuring methane using cross-correlation method,” Measurement 45, 325–332 (2012). [CrossRef]
  20. Q. Xie, J. Li, X. Gao, and J. Jia, “Fourier domain local narrow-band signal extraction algorithm and its application to real-time infrared gas detection,” Sens. Actuators B 146, 35–39 (2010). [CrossRef]
  21. K. Kuhn, M. Siegwart, E. Pignanelli, T. Sauerwald, and A. Schutze, “Versatile infrared gas measurement system with tunable microstructured Fabry–Pérot filter,” in IEEE International Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference (I2MTC) (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1938–1943.
  22. J. Yang, B. Wang, C. Fan, and L. Wang, “A new single-end mainstream Co2 capnograph,” Comp. Meth. Biomech. Biomed. Engin. 14, 1033–1039 (2011). [CrossRef]
  23. S. You-Wen, Z. Yi, L. Wen-Qing, X. Pin-Hua, C. Ka-Lok, L. Xian-Xin, W. Shi-Mei, and H. Shu-Hua, “Cross-interference correction and simultaneous multi-gas analysis based on infrared absorption,” Chin. Phys. B 21, 090701 (2012). [CrossRef]
  24. D. P. Edelson, J. Eilevstjønn, E. K. Weidman, E. Retzer, T. L. V. Hoek, and B. S. Abella, “Capnography and chest-wall impedance algorithms for ventilation detection during cardiopulmonary resuscitation,” Resuscitation 81, 317–322 (2010). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited