OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: Joseph N. Mait
  • Vol. 53, Iss. 24 — Aug. 20, 2014
  • pp: 5307–5311

Microscopic lithography with pixelate diffraction of a digital micro-mirror device for micro-lens fabrication

Xiang-Yu Ding, Yu-Xuan Ren, Lei Gong, Zhao-Xiang Fang, and Rong-De Lu  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 53, Issue 24, pp. 5307-5311 (2014)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (484 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



The irradiance in microscopic lithography using a digital micro-mirror device (DMD) as a virtual digital mask generator is influenced by diffraction effects that have been exploited to fabricate microstructures. Based on the established model, the theoretical analysis and simulation of DMD diffraction characteristics has been studied. A novel method without masking to fabricate a micro-lens by pixilation of micro-mirrors inside the DMDs used in microscopic lithography has been proposed. It is a method of precise control of photon-induced curing behavior of photoresist by full use of diffraction effects and verification of the feasibility of the fabrication method based on diffraction. The introduced method provides an option for accurate and flexible micro-fabrication of microstructures.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(050.1950) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction gratings
(120.4610) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Optical fabrication
(220.4000) Optical design and fabrication : Microstructure fabrication
(130.4815) Integrated optics : Optical switching devices
(050.6875) Diffraction and gratings : Three-dimensional fabrication

ToC Category:
Optical Design and Fabrication

Original Manuscript: May 21, 2014
Revised Manuscript: July 14, 2014
Manuscript Accepted: July 14, 2014
Published: August 12, 2014

Xiang-Yu Ding, Yu-Xuan Ren, Lei Gong, Zhao-Xiang Fang, and Rong-De Lu, "Microscopic lithography with pixelate diffraction of a digital micro-mirror device for micro-lens fabrication," Appl. Opt. 53, 5307-5311 (2014)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. T. Kamei, “Laser-induced fluorescence detection modules for point-of-care microfluidic biochemical analysis,” Procedia Eng. 25, 709–712 (2011). [CrossRef]
  2. F. Galeotti, W. Mróz, G. Scavia, and C. Botta, “Microlens arrays for light extraction enhancement in organic light-emitting diodes: a facile approach,” Org. Electron. 14, 212–218 (2013). [CrossRef]
  3. K. J. Kearney and Z. Ninkov, “Characterization of a digital micromirror device for use as an optical mask in imaging and spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 3292, 81–92 (1998). [CrossRef]
  4. C. Sun, N. Fang, D. M. Wu, and X. Zhang, “Projection micro-stereolithography using digital micro-mirror dynamic mask,” Sens. Actuators A 121, 113–120 (2005). [CrossRef]
  5. K. Zhong, Y. Gao, F. Li, N. Luo, and W. Zhang, “Fabrication of continuous relief micro-optic elements using real-time maskless lithography technique based on DMD,” Opt. Laser Technol. 56, 367–371 (2014). [CrossRef]
  6. L. Geppert, “Semiconductor lithography for the next millennium,” IEEE Spectrum 33, 33–38 (1996). [CrossRef]
  7. L. J. Hornbeck, “From cathode rays to digital micromirrors-A history of electronic projection display technology,” Texas Instruments Tech. J. 15, 7–46 (1998).
  8. P. F. Van Kessel, L. J. Hornbeck, R. E. Meier, and M. R. Douglass, “A MEMS-based projection display,” Proc. IEEE 86, 1687–1704 (1998). [CrossRef]
  9. V. Bansal and P. Saggau, “Digital micromirror devices: principles and applications in imaging,” Cold Spring Harb. Protocols 2013, 404–411 (2013). [CrossRef]
  10. Y. X. Ren, M. Li, K. Huang, J. G. Wu, H. F. Gao, Z. Q. Wang, and Y. M. Li, “Experimental generation of Laguerre–Gaussian beam using digital micromirror device,” Appl. Opt. 49, 1838–1844 (2010). [CrossRef]
  11. V. Lerner, D. Shwa, Y. Drori, and N. Katz, “Shaping Laguerre–Gaussian laser modes with binary gratings using a digital micromirror device,” Opt. Lett. 37, 4826–4828 (2012). [CrossRef]
  12. L. Gong, Y.-X. Ren, G.-S. Xue, Q.-C. Wang, J.-H. Zhou, M.-C. Zhong, Z.-Q. Wang, and Y.-M. Li, “Generation of nondiffracting Bessel beam using digital micromirror device,” Appl. Opt. 52, 4566–4575 (2013). [CrossRef]
  13. P. Zhu, O. Fajardo, J. Shum, Y.-P. Zhang Schärer, and R. W. Friedrich, “High-resolution optical control of spatiotemporal neuronal activity patterns in zebrafish using a digital micromirror device,” Nat. Protocols 7, 1410–1425 (2012). [CrossRef]
  14. A. Bertsch, J. Y. Jézéquel, and J. C. André, “Study of the spatial resolution of a new 3D microfabrication process: the microstereophotolithography using a dynamic mask-generator technique,” J. Photochem. Photobiol., A 107, 275–281 (1997). [CrossRef]
  15. M. Seo and H. Kim, “Influence of dynamic sub-pixelation on exposure intensity distribution under diffraction effects in spatial light modulation based lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 98, 125–129 (2012). [CrossRef]
  16. J. D. Gaskill, Linear Systems, Fourier Transforms, and Optics, Wiley Series in Pure and Applied Optics (Wiley, 1978).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3.
Fig. 4.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited