OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: Joseph N. Mait
  • Vol. 53, Iss. 24 — Aug. 20, 2014
  • pp: 5312–5321

Characterization and analysis of finite-beam Bragg diffraction in a periodically poled lithium niobate electro-optic grating

J. W. Chang, H. F. Yau, H. P. Chung, W. K. Chang, and Y. H. Chen  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 53, Issue 24, pp. 5312-5321 (2014)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (929 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We report the study, both theoretical and experimental, of the finite-beam Bragg diffraction behavior of an electro-optic (EO) volume grating made of a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) crystal. When a Gaussian laser beam is used, the experimental observations show that the diffraction characteristics of the PPLN EO Bragg device, including the diffraction mode pattern and diffraction efficiency, are closely related to the interaction beam size and applied voltage, which cannot be modeled properly by a simplified theory using the plane-wave approximation. In this work, we have developed a theoretical model for describing the diffraction behavior of a PPLN EO Bragg device based on the coupled-wave theory with the aid of the plane-wave decomposition method. Specifically, we found that it is the angular distribution (or the dephasing bandwidth) of the plane wave elements decomposed from the incident Gaussian beam and grating strength that determine the Bragg coupling behavior of the device. We also identified some other electro-optically induced effects in the PPLN grating as an important mechanism in affecting the diffraction performance of the present device, especially at high working voltages.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(050.1950) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction gratings
(230.2090) Optical devices : Electro-optical devices

ToC Category:
Diffraction and Gratings

Original Manuscript: June 12, 2014
Manuscript Accepted: July 10, 2014
Published: August 12, 2014

J. W. Chang, H. F. Yau, H. P. Chung, W. K. Chang, and Y. H. Chen, "Characterization and analysis of finite-beam Bragg diffraction in a periodically poled lithium niobate electro-optic grating," Appl. Opt. 53, 5312-5321 (2014)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. M. Yamada, M. Saitoh, and H. Ooki, “Electric-field induced cylindrical lens, switching and deflection devices composed of the inverted domains in LiNbO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3659–3661 (1996). [CrossRef]
  2. M. Yamada, “Electrically induced Bragg-diffraction grating composed of periodically inverted domains in lithium niobate crystals and its application devices,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 4010–4016 (2000). [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Y. Lin, S. T. Lin, G. W. Chang, A. C. Chiang, Y. C. Huang, and Y. H. Chen, “Electro-optic periodically poled lithium niobate Bragg modulator as a laser Q-switch,” Opt. Lett. 32, 545–547 (2007). [CrossRef]
  4. Y. H. Chen, W. K. Chang, H. P. Chung, B. Z. Liu, C. H. Tseng, and J. W. Chang, “Tunable, pulsed multiline intracavity optical parametric oscillator using two-dimensional MgO: periodically poled lithium niobate–aperiodically poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. 38, 3507–3509 (2013). [CrossRef]
  5. H. Gnewuch, C. N. Pannell, G. W. Ross, P. G. R. Smith, and H. Geiger, “Nanosecond response of Bragg deflectors in periodically poled LiNbO3,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1730–1732 (1998). [CrossRef]
  6. J. A. Abernethy, C. B. E. Gawith, R. W. Eason, and P. G. R. Smith, “Demonstration and optical characteristics of electro-optic Bragg modulators in periodically poled lithium niobate in the near-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2514–2516 (2002). [CrossRef]
  7. H. Kogelnik, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2947 (1969). [CrossRef]
  8. T. K. Gaylord and M. G. Moharam, “Analysis and applications of optical diffraction by gratings,” Proc. IEEE 73, 894–937 (1985). [CrossRef]
  9. N. Kato, “A theoretical study of pendellosung fringes,” Acta Crystallogr. 14, 526–532 (1961). [CrossRef]
  10. B. Benlarbi, P. St. J. Russell, and L. Solymar, “Bragg diffraction of finite beams by thick gratings: two rival theories,” Appl. Phys. B 28, 63–72 (1982). [CrossRef]
  11. L. Paul and R. C. Dale, Electromagnetic Fields and Waves (W. H. Freeman, 1972), Chap. 12.
  12. M. Müller, E. Soergel, and K. Buse, “Light deflection from ferroelectric domain structures in congruent lithium tantalate crystals,” Appl. Opt. 43, 6344–6347 (2004). [CrossRef]
  13. M. de Angelis, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, G. Pierattini, P. Ferraro, S. Grilli, and M. Paturzo, “Evaluation of the internal field in lithium niobate ferroelectric domains by an interferometric method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2785–2787 (2004). [CrossRef]
  14. M. Müller, E. Soergel, K. Buse, and M. C. Wengler, “Light deflection from ferroelectric domain boundaries,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 367–370 (2004). [CrossRef]
  15. J. A. Fleck and M. D. Feit, “Beam propagation in uniaxial anisotropic media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 920–926 (1983). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited