OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: Joseph N. Mait
  • Vol. 53, Iss. 4 — Feb. 1, 2014
  • pp: A291–A296

High laser-resistant multilayer mirrors by nodular defect planarization [Invited]

Christopher J. Stolz, Justin E. Wolfe, John J. Adams, Marlon G. Menor, Nick E. Teslich, Paul B. Mirkarimi, James A. Folta, Regina Soufli, Carmen S. Menoni, and Dinesh Patel  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 53, Issue 4, pp. A291-A296 (2014)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1112 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Substrate defect planarization has been shown to increase the laser resistance of 1053 nm mirror coatings to greater than 100J/cm2, an increase of 20-fold, when tested with 10 ns laser pulses. Substrate surface particles that are overcoated with optical interference mirror coatings become nodular defects, which behave as microlenses intensifying light into the defect structure. By a discrete process of angle-dependent ion etching and unidirectional ion-beam deposition, substrate defects can be reduced in cross-sectional area by over 90%.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(140.3330) Lasers and laser optics : Laser damage
(230.4040) Optical devices : Mirrors
(240.0310) Optics at surfaces : Thin films
(310.1860) Thin films : Deposition and fabrication

Original Manuscript: August 29, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: September 16, 2013
Published: January 15, 2014

Christopher J. Stolz, Justin E. Wolfe, John J. Adams, Marlon G. Menor, Nick E. Teslich, Paul B. Mirkarimi, James A. Folta, Regina Soufli, Carmen S. Menoni, and Dinesh Patel, "High laser-resistant multilayer mirrors by nodular defect planarization [Invited]," Appl. Opt. 53, A291-A296 (2014)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. M. R. Kozlowski, R. J. Tench, R. Chow, and L. Sheehan, “Influence of defect shape on laser-induced damage in multiplayer coatings,” Proc. SPIE 2253, 743–750 (1994). [CrossRef]
  2. C. Wei, K. Yi, Z. Fan, and J. Shao, “Influence of composition and seed dimension on the structure and laser damage of nodular defects in HfO2/SiO2 high reflectors,” Appl. Opt. 51, 6781–6788 (2012). [CrossRef]
  3. X. Cheng, T. Ding, W. He, J. Zhang, H. Jiao, B. Ma, Z. Shen, and Z. Wang, “Using monodisperse SiO2 microspheres to study laser-induced damage of nodules in HfO2/SiO2 high reflectors,” Proc. SPIE 8168, 816816 (2011). [CrossRef]
  4. C. J. Stolz, M. D. Feit, and T. V. Pistor, “Laser intensification by spherical inclusions embedded within multilayer coatings,” Appl. Opt. 45, 1594–1601 (2006). [CrossRef]
  5. X. Cheng, A. Tuinyazi, J. Zhang, T. Ding, H. Jiao, B. Ma, Z. Wei, H. Li, and Z. Wang, “Nanosecond laser-induced damage of nodular defects in dielectric multilayers,” Appl. Opt. 53, A62–A69 (2014). [CrossRef]
  6. Y. G. Shan, H. B. He, Y. Wang, X. Li, D. W. Li, and Y. A. Zhao, “Electric field enhancement and laser damage growth in high-reflective coatings at 1064  nm,” Opt. Commun. 284, 625–629 (2011). [CrossRef]
  7. A. B. Papandrew, C. J. Stolz, Z. L. Wu, G. E. Loomis, and S. Falabella, “Laser conditioning characterization and damage threshold prediction of hafnia/silica multilayer mirrors by photothermal microscopy,” Proc. SPIE 4347, 53–61 (2001). [CrossRef]
  8. C. J. Stolz, J. J. Tench, M. R. Kozlowski, and A. Fornier, “A comparison of nodular defect seed geometries from different deposition techniques,” Proc. SPIE 2714, 374–382 (1996). [CrossRef]
  9. R. Chow, S. Falabella, G. E. Loomis, F. Rainer, C. J. Stolz, and M. R. Kozlowski, “Reactive evaporation of low-defect density hafnia,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5567–5574 (1993). [CrossRef]
  10. F. L. Williams, G. A. Petersen, C. K. Carmiglia, and B. J. Pond, “In situ characterization of thin-film defect generation using total internal reflection microscopy,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 10, 1472–1478 (1992). [CrossRef]
  11. D. Reicher, P. Black, and K. Jungling, “Defect formation in hafnium dioxide thin films,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1589–1599 (2000). [CrossRef]
  12. J. E. Wolfe, C. J. Stolz, and S. Falabella, “Velocity determination of particles ejected during electron beam deposition,” in Optical Interference Coatings, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper FA2.
  13. J. E. Wolfe, S. R. Qiu, and C. J. Stolz, “Fabrication of mitigation pits for improving laser damage resistance in dielectric mirrors by femtosecond laser machining,” Appl. Opt. 50, C457–C462 (2011). [CrossRef]
  14. P. B. Mirkarimi, E. Spiller, S. L. Baker, D. G. Stearns, J. C. Robinson, D. L. Olynick, F. Salmassi, J. A. Liddle, T. Liang, and A. R. Stivers, “A silicon-based, sequential coat-and-etch process to fabricate nearly perfect substrate surfaces,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 6, 28–35 (2006).
  15. P. B. Mirkarimi, E. Spiler, S. L. Baker, J. C. Robinson, D. G. Stearns, J. A. Liddle, F. Salmassi, T. Liang, and A. R. Stivers, “Advancing the ion beam thin film planarization process for the smoothing of substrate particles,” Microelectron. Eng. 77, 369–381 (2005). [CrossRef]
  16. B. Langdon, D. Patel, E. Krous, J. J. Rocca, C. S. Menoni, F. Tomasel, S. Kholi, P. R. McCurdy, P. Langston, and A. Ogloza, “Influence of process conditions on the optical properties HfO2/SiO2 thin films for high power laser coatings,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 67200X (2008). [CrossRef]
  17. C. J. Stolz, J. A. Folta, P. B. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, C. C. Walton, J. E. Wolfe, C. S. Menoni, and D. Patel, “Planarization of multilayer optical coating defects,” Provisional Patent Attorney Docket Number (2012).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited