An optical source simulating the sun at the top of the atmosphere has been constructed and used to obtain retinal burn thresholds in the rhesus monkey for image diameters corresponding to that of the solar disk on the human retina. Powers incident on the cornea and retinal irradiances required to produce threshold lesions are given for exposure times ranging from 1 s to 3 min. The ocular hazards associated with viewing the sun through aircraft window systems are assessed in terms of these data. Also, radiation in the near infrared is shown to be less dangerous than visible light in producing thermal injury to the retina.
© 1973 Optical Society of America
Original Manuscript: March 5, 1973
Published: September 1, 1973
W. T. Ham, H. A. Mueller, R. C. Williams, and W. J. Geeraets, "Ocular Hazard from Viewing the Sun Unprotected and Through Various Windows and Filters," Appl. Opt. 12, 2122-2129 (1973)