OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 11, Iss. 3 — Mar. 1, 1972
  • pp: 662–666

Time of Flight Lidar Measurements as an Ocean Probe

George W. Kattawar and Gilbert N. Plass  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 11, Issue 3, pp. 662-666 (1972)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (608 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Photons emitted by a narrow laser beam are followed through multiple scattering events in the ocean until registered by a detector at the source position. A realistic ocean model is used which takes account not only of molecular scattering (Rayleigh) and absorption, but also scattering and absorption by the hydrosols (Mie). The single scattering function for the hydrosols is calculated from Mie theory assuming a relative index of refraction of 1.15 and a size distribution with a modal radius of 3 μ. Targets with various surface albedos (A) are introduced at various distances from the source. The three-dimensional path of the photons is followed by a Monte Carlo technique. When A ≥ 0.02 the returned flux per unit photon path length from the targets is greater than the background from the laser beam for any target distance. The returned flux is plotted as a function of the photon path length. In practice the detection distance is limited by the lowest flux that can be detected and the background of natural light. Inhomogeneities in the optical properties of the ocean can also be measured in this way.

© 1972 Optical Society of America

Original Manuscript: July 12, 1971
Published: March 1, 1972

George W. Kattawar and Gilbert N. Plass, "Time of Flight Lidar Measurements as an Ocean Probe," Appl. Opt. 11, 662-666 (1972)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
Fig. 4

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited