Design principles of holographic optical elements are discussed. It is shown that a phase hologram with a high efficiency can be produced that transforms the input wavefront into an output of the required directivity. Such holograms can be used in laser systems instead of complex multilens objectives. Holograms have been obtained experimentally with a diffraction efficiency of 70%.
A. L. Mikaeliane, V. I. Bobrinev, K. S. Bogomolov, V. K. Koziova, S. M. Malinin, and L. P. Vachtanova, "Possibilities of Optical Elements Design Using Phase Holograms," Appl. Opt. 11, 2004-2006 (1972)