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Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 11, Iss. 9 — Sep. 1, 1972
  • pp: 2060–2068

Optical Systems for Defining the Viewing and Measuring Fields in Luminance/Radiance Meters

Richard A. Walker  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 11, Issue 9, pp. 2060-2068 (1972)

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Luminance and radiance measuring instrumentations generally consist of an objective lens (or mirror system), a photodetector, and an optical system that defines both the viewing field and the measuring field of the instrument. In more versatile instruments, this optical system is generally required to define a multiplicity of different-size fields. This paper reviews existing methods—such as the beam splitter/reticle approach, the fiber light pipe approach, etc.—and explores several new systems. Comparative evaluation of the various systems is made using the criteria of efficiency, unambiguity of viewing field, alignment accuracy between viewing and measuring field, freedom from polarization, etc. The optimal system appears to be one that consists of a mirror disk fabricated with a multiplicity of elliptical apertures through it; the disk is oriented at an angle to the optical axis so that the photons being measured pass through the selected aperture, while the mirror surface reflects the balance of the incoming radiation to the observer’s eye for viewing. A new instrument that is based on this optimal system is briefly described.

© 1972 Optical Society of America

Original Manuscript: November 15, 1971
Published: September 1, 1972

Richard A. Walker, "Optical Systems for Defining the Viewing and Measuring Fields in Luminance/Radiance Meters," Appl. Opt. 11, 2060-2068 (1972)

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  1. J. W. T. Walsh, Photometry (Constable, London, 1926), pp. 402–403.
  2. Illumination Engineering Society, IES Lighting Handbook (I.E.S., New York, 1966), pp. 4-4 to 4-7.
  3. For discussion of terms and units, see J. R. Meyer-Arendt, Appl. Opt. 7, 2081 (1968). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Ref. 1, p. 347.
  5. A. H. Taylor, Trans. Illum. Eng. Society (London) 32, 235 (1937).
  6. C. B. Neblette, Photography, Its Materials and Processes (Van Nostrand, Princeton, 1962), p. 144.
  7. See, for example, Ref. 1, p. 155.
  8. Ref. 6, p. 145.
  9. Manufactured by Photo Research Division of Kollmorgen Corp., Burbank, California, 91505. The words Spectra, Pritchard photometer, Spectar, and Auto-Comp are trademarks of Photo Research.
  10. F. F. Crandell, K. Freund, J. Soc. Motion Pict. Telev. Eng. 61, 215 (1953).
  11. K. Freund, Illum. Eng. 48, 524 (1953).
  12. G. A. Horton, Illum. Eng. 60, 217 (1965).
  13. The late Ben Pritchard was associated with the Vision Research Laboratories at the University of Michigan and the University of Ohio.
  14. H. R. Luxenberg, R. L. Kuehn, Display Systems Engineering (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968), p. 95.
  15. D. E. Spencer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 396 (1965). [CrossRef]
  16. See any text on fiber optics; for example, W. J. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1966), p. 237.
  17. R. A. Walker, “Radiometric Techniques for Sensitometry,” Final Report on contract AF-33 (657) 8444, ASD-TDR-63-678; Houston Fearless Corp., Los Angeles, Calif. 90064 (December1963).
  18. The author has found photometric variations of 20–50% as being typical of current commercial zoom lenses.
  19. The design described herein is owned by the Photo Research Division of the Kollmorgen Corporation, is being protected by patents, and is not to be manufactured, sold, or used by others without the prior written consent of Photo Research.
  20. R. E. Levin, Discussion on Horton article (Ref. 12), p. 224.

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