The wave structure function associated with atmospheric turbulence is important in the effective design of telescopes for coherent optical receivers. This paper describes a method of measurement of the wave structure function by employing an already existing optical receiver. The aperture of this receiver’s telescope is masked by an opaque screen with two small holes. It is then shown that when the incident beam obeys Gaussian statistics, the receiver’s A.M. output can be simply related to the wave structure function of the incident beam.
R. H. Lang and P. O. Minott, "Determination of Atmospheric Structure Function by Using a Single Coherent Detector," Appl. Opt. 12, 2843-2847 (1973)