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Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 12, Iss. 4 — Apr. 1, 1973
  • pp: 799–804

A Standard for Ultraviolet Radiation

G. B. Fisher, W. E. Spicer, P. C. McKernan, V. F. Pereskok, and S. J. Wanner  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 12, Issue 4, pp. 799-804 (1973)

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Photoemission diode standards for accurately measuring monochromatic ultraviolet light intensity (3000 Å–1100 Å) are described that are also blind to visible light (λ > 3600 Å). The standard uses an opaque photocathode of Cs2Te and is unique because of its combination of thinness (19 mm), high sensitivity (Q.E. > 10%), time stability, and uniformity of response. Design criteria, construction methods, and difficulties overcome in obtaining a stable, unform, high yield photocathode responses are discussed. Cs2Te is discussed in terms of a model for high yield photoemitters.

© 1973 Optical Society of America

Original Manuscript: October 11, 1972
Published: April 1, 1973

G. B. Fisher, W. E. Spicer, P. C. McKernan, V. F. Pereskok, and S. J. Wanner, "A Standard for Ultraviolet Radiation," Appl. Opt. 12, 799-804 (1973)

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  1. A. J. Blodgett, Ph.D. dissertation, Stanford University, 1965; Dissertation Abstr. 26, 4754 (1966) [Order No. 65-12745]. [PubMed]
  2. E. Taft, L. Apker, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 81 (1953). [CrossRef]
  3. A. H. Sommer, Photoemissive Materials (Wiley, New York, 1968).
  4. L. R. Canfield (private communication).
  5. R. Y. Koyama, Ph.D. dissertation, Stanford University, 1969; Dissertation Abstr. Intern. 30, 5654B (1970) [Order No. 70-10478].
  6. R. S. Bauer, Ph.D. dissertation, Stanford University, 1970; Dissertation Abstr. Intern. 32, 1150B (1971) [Order No. 71-19646].
  7. J. P. Causse, IRE Trans. Nuclear Sci. NS-9, 90 (June1962). [CrossRef]
  8. The photomultiplier quantum efficiency shown is EMR photomultiplier (model 541F-08-18) of Electro-Mechanical Research, Inc., Princeton, N.J. The curve matches current specifications and is from J. A. R. Samson, Techniques of Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectroscopy (Wiley, New York, 1967), p. 225.
  9. Interestingly enough, the areas of nonuniformity and of normal material have spectral responses of the same shape, as first noted by L. R. Canfield,4 but the areas of nonuniformity peak lower at 6.8 eV and have a higher response at the minimum near 8.5 eV than normal material. (Note the middle region of cell 118 in Fig. 6.) In addition, for the latest fourteen cells we have made we have observed a direct correlation between a higher yield at the minimum near 8.5 eV and a higher visible response near 2.5 eV. Along with these observations, we may speculate that the visible response is emission from filled states up to an electron volt above the valence band maximum, possibly caused by nonstoichometry of Cs2Te, which would be most reasonably due to excess Te. If this is the case, the regions of nonuniformity with their relatively higher yields near 8.5 eV may simply be regions of considerable nonstoichiometry.
  10. W. E. Spicer, F. Wooten, Proc. IEEE 51, 1119 (1963); W. E. Spicer, J. Appl. Phys. 31, 2077 (1960). [CrossRef]
  11. The electron affinity EA defined here is actually the effective electron affinity found from EA = ET − EG, since any changes of the “real” value due to band bending at the surface are difficult to determine.
  12. N. V. Smith, G. B. Fisher, Phys. Rev. B3, 3662 (1971).
  13. The threshold for possible simultaneous emission of scattered primaries and secondary electrons occurs at 2ET or about 7 eV, but this process does not appear to be significant in this energy range.
  14. W. E. Spicer, Phys. Rev. 112, 114 (1958); C. N. Berglund, W. E. Spicer, Phys. Rev. 136, A1030 (1964); Phys. Rev. 136, A1044 (1964). [CrossRef]

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