The active cavity radiometer (ACR) is a pyrheliometer that accurately defines the absolute radiation scale. The physics of the pyrheliometric method and the ACR approach to this method are presented in detail. A mathematical abstraction of the method is generated through a quasi-equilibrium analysis of the power balance of the ACR's cavity detector. An error analysis is carried out on the quasi-equilibrium equation to determine the uncertainties of ACR measurements relative to the absolute radiation scale. The uncertainty of ACR measurements as a function of irradiance level is presented in graphical form.
Richard C. Willson, "Active Cavity Radiometer," Appl. Opt. 12, 810-817 (1973)