OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Vol. 12, Iss. 6 — Jun. 1, 1973
  • pp: 1202–1212

Speckle Reduction Using Multiple Tones of Illumination

Nicholas George and Atul Jain  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 12, Issue 6, pp. 1202-1212 (1973)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.12.001202


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (2097 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

The occurrence and smoothing of speckle are studied as a function of the line width for a highly collimated illuminating source. A general theory is presented for speckling in the image of a partially diffuse, phase type of object, which has a variable number of random scattering centers per resolution element. Then, an expression is derived for the wavelength spacing required to decouple the speckle patterns arising from two monochromatic tones in an imaging system, thereby establishing that it is feasible to smooth speckle using multicolor illumination. This theory is verified in a series of experiments using both laser illumination and band-limited light from a carbon arc. With highly collimated sources, we show that speckle appears laserlike for an imaged diffuser even up to line widths of 5 Å. Then, smoothing of speckle is demonstrated in the imaging of a diffuser and for a section of an optic nerve when the illumination is provided by six narrow lines spread over 1500 Å. Since with color-blind, panchromatic viewing the speckle smooths, a direct extension of this method to holographic microscopy, using a multitone laser, should permit one to record and reconstruct holograms of diffraction-limited resolution that are essentially speckle-free.

© 1973 Optical Society of America

History
Original Manuscript: September 25, 1972
Published: June 1, 1973

Citation
Nicholas George and Atul Jain, "Speckle Reduction Using Multiple Tones of Illumination," Appl. Opt. 12, 1202-1212 (1973)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-12-6-1202


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. M. v. Laue, Sitzber. Preuss. Akad.1144, (1914), trans. by H. K. V. Lotsch.
  2. J. W. Goodman, Stanford University Electronics Labs. Tech. Rept. SEL-63-140 (TR 2303-1) (Dec.1963).
  3. L. I. Goldfischer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 247 (1965). [CrossRef]
  4. L. H. Enloe, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 46, 1479 (1967).
  5. W. Martienssen, S. Spiller, Phys. Lett. 24A, 126 (1967).
  6. E. N. Leith, J. Upatnieks, Appl. Opt. 7, 2085 (1968). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. H. J. Gerritsen, W. J. Hannan, E. G. Ramberg, Appl. Opt. 7, 2301 (1968). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. R. F. van Ligten, Opt. Technol. 1, 71 (1969). [CrossRef]
  9. R. F. van Ligten, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 1545 (1969).
  10. M. E. Cox, R. G. Buckles, D. Whitlow, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 1545 (1969).
  11. E. Archbold, J. M. Burch, A. E. Ennos, P. A. Taylor, Nature 222, 263 (1969). [CrossRef]
  12. M. Young, B. Faulkner, J. Cole, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 137 (1970). [CrossRef]
  13. J. C. Dainty, Opt. Acta 17, 761 (1970). [CrossRef]
  14. D. Gabor, IBM J. Res. Develop. 14, 509 (1970). [CrossRef]
  15. S. Lowenthal, D. Joyeux, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 847 (1971). [CrossRef]
  16. H. H. Hopkins, H. Tiziani, Applications of Holography (Besancon Conference6–11 July 1970), viii.
  17. D. H. Close, J. Quantum Electron. QE-7, 312 (1971). [CrossRef]
  18. J. M. Burch, SPIE Devel. Hologr. 25, 149 (1971). [CrossRef]
  19. M. Elbaum, M. Greenebaum, M. King, Opt. Commun. 5, 171 (1972). [CrossRef]
  20. N. George, A. Jain, Opt. Commun. 6, 253 (1972). [CrossRef]
  21. N. George, A. Jain, Calif. Inst. of Technol. Sci. Rept. 14, AFOSR-TR-72-1308 (1972).
  22. J. Upatnieks, R. W. Lewis, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 1351A (1972).
  23. Hologram volume effects and color holography are fully discussed in the following textbook and will not be treated further herein: R. J. Collier, C. B. Burckhardt, L. H. Lin, Optical Holography (Academic Press, New York, (1971), Chaps. 9 and 17.
  24. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968), Chap. 5.
  25. N. George, J. T. McCrickerd, Photogr. Sci. Eng. 13, 342 (1969).
  26. As we have employed it here, the Gaussian transmission function in Eq. (2) is chosen for theoretical convenience, although for electronic optics it is physically appropriate as well. In the results it will not make any qualitative difference; in fact, in deriving the form in Eq. (15) we further approximate the actual case using a simple rect function as the impulse response of the lens.
  27. In this simplification, the assumption is that the phase terms in the integrand of Eq. (3) involving the variables x′, y′ do not vary appreciably within the interval wr. For a consideration of the extent of this type of phase variation, the reader is referred to D. A. Tichenor, J. W. Goodman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 293 (1972). [CrossRef]
  28. A. Papoulis, Probability, Random Variables, and Stochastic Processes (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1965), Chap. 8.
  29. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1970), Chap. 10.
  30. The 8-μm section of the optic nerve is prepared by perfusing the eyestalk in 1% K4Fe(CN)6 in crayfish saline; it is removed from the crayfish, soaked in saline saturated with picric acid, dehydrated in alcohol, embedded in paraffin, sectioned with a rotary microtome, stained in a Ponceau acid fushin solution, and mounted with Permount on glass.

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited