The radiance in the earth's atmosphere and ocean is calculated for a realistic model including an ocean surface with waves. Individual photons are followed in a Monte Carlo calculation. In the atmosphere, both Rayleigh scattering by the molecules and Mie scattering by the aerosols as well as molecular and aerosol absorption are taken into account. Similarly, in the ocean, both Rayleigh scattering by the water molecules and Mie scattering by the hydrosols as well as absorption by the water molecules and hydrosols are considered. Separate single-scattering functions are used which are calculated separately for the aerosols and the hydrosols from the Mie theory with appropriate and different size distributions in each case. The scattering angles are determined from the appropriate scattering function including the strong forward-scattering peak when there is aerosol or hydrosol scattering. Both the reflected and refracted rays, as well as the rays that undergo total internal reflection, are followed at the ocean surface. The wave slope is chosen from the Cox-Munk distribution. Graphs show the influence of the waves on the upward radiance at the top of the atmosphere and just above the ocean surface and on the downward radiance just below the ocean surface as well as deeper within the ocean. The radiance changes are sufficient at the top of the atmosphere to determine the sea state from satellite measurements. Within the ocean the waves smooth out the abrupt transition that occurs at the edge of the allowed cone for radiation entering a calm ocean. The influence of the waves on the contrast between the sky and sea at the horizon is discussed. It is shown that the downward flux just below the surface increases with wind speed at all solar angles.
© 1975 Optical Society of America
Original Manuscript: March 14, 1975
Published: August 1, 1975
Gilbert N. Plass, George W. Kattawar, and John A. Guinn, "Radiative transfer in the earth's atmosphere and ocean: influence of ocean waves," Appl. Opt. 14, 1924-1936 (1975)