OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 15, Iss. 11 — Nov. 1, 1976
  • pp: 2860–2865

Photographic image intensification by autoradiography

Barbara S. Askins  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 15, Issue 11, pp. 2860-2865 (1976)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1622 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Images on developed photographic emulsions can be significantly intensified by making the image silver radioactive and exposing a second emulsion to this radiation. Because the print, an autoradiograph, reproduces the original with significant increases in density and contrast, the method can be used to enhance underexposed emulsions and to increase the limits of photographic detection. This paper reports a new, practical chemical method for activating the silver, using thiourea labeled with sulfur-35, a process convenient for use in photographic laboratories. Speed increases of 13 and contrast increases of 18 were achieved with Kodak Plus-X film in this initial phase.

© 1976 Optical Society of America

Original Manuscript: May 15, 1976
Published: November 1, 1976

Barbara S. Askins, "Photographic image intensification by autoradiography," Appl. Opt. 15, 2860-2865 (1976)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. W. C. Lewis, J. H. James, Photogr. Sci. Eng. 13, 54 (1969).
  2. A. G. Smith, H. W. Schrader, W. W. Richardson, Appl. Opt. 10, 1597 (1971).
  3. T. A. Babcock, M. H. Sewell, W. C. Lewis, T. H. James, Astron. J. 79, 1479 (1974).
  4. J. DeMent, U.S. Patent2,603,775 (1952).
  5. E. Ostroff, Science 154, 119 (1966).
  6. R. M. Chatters, C. Jacobs, Photogr. Appl. Sci., Tech. Med., 26 (1970).
  7. M. Thackray, D. Roman, E. L. R. Hetherington, H. H. Brian, Int. J. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 23, 79 (1972).
  8. M. Thackray, Australian Atomic Energy Commission Report ISBN 0 642 996563 (1974).
  9. M. Thackray, British Patent1394664 (1975).
  10. J. C. Dainty, R. Shaw, Image Science (Academic, London, 1974), pp. 147–148.
  11. R. Clark Jones, Photogr. Sci. Eng, 2, 57 (1958).
  12. Ref. 10, p. 148.
  13. Ref. 8, pp. A1–A5.
  14. Ref. 7, pp. 80–81.
  15. See Nuclear Regulatory Commission Code of Regulations, Title ;10, Part 20, Paragraph 303.
  16. The speed and grain size of Kodak X-ray films decrease in the order: AA, M, R. Double-coated film is used only because it is readily available from radiographers, the second coat serving no useful purpose in autoradiography since the range of the beta particles limits them to one side of the emulsion.
  17. W. Thomas, Ed., SPSE Handbook of Photographic Science and Engineering (Wiley, New York, 1973), p. 819.
  18. Ref. 17, p. 816.
  19. USAF Resolving Power Test Target prepared by Buckbee-Mears Company, St. Paul, Minn.
  20. Information on licensing and required safety procedures can be obtained from U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Division of Materials Licensing, Washington, D.C. 20545.

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited