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Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 15, Iss. 8 — Aug. 1, 1976
  • pp: 1960–1965

Photoelastic modulator for the 0.55–13-μm range

J. C. Cheng, L. A. Nafie, S. D. Allen, and A. I. Braunstein  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 15, Issue 8, pp. 1960-1965 (1976)

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An improved photoelastic modulator (PEM) employing two piezoelectric transducers and incorporating a new ir zinc selenide (ZnSe) optical element is described. The 0.64-cm thick PEM is capable of obtaining quarter-wave retardation from 0.55 μm to 13.0 μm. Previously no single, high quality, low static strain PEM element existed for this wavelength range. We have also constructed other PEM’s using optical elements composed of fused quartz, calcium fluoride, and KRS-5. The important optical and mechanical properties are measured and compared.

© 1976 Optical Society of America

Original Manuscript: October 23, 1975
Published: August 1, 1976

J. C. Cheng, L. A. Nafie, S. D. Allen, and A. I. Braunstein, "Photoelastic modulator for the 0.55–13-μm range," Appl. Opt. 15, 1960-1965 (1976)

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  1. M. Billardon, J. Badoz, C. R. Acad. Sci, Ser. B 262, 1672 (1966).
  2. L. F. Mollenauer, D. Downie, H. Engstrom, W. B. Grant, Appl. Opt. 8, 661 (1969). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. C. Kemp, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 950 (1969).
  4. S. N. Jasperson, S. E. Schnatterly, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 40, 761 (1969). [CrossRef]
  5. In practice, we found that the destruction of the optical elements always preceded that of the quartz transducers.
  6. I. Chabay, E. C. Hsu, G. Holzwartz, Chem. Phys. Lett. 15, 211 (1972). [CrossRef]
  7. We will use two criteria to describe the modulator’s performances. The quarter-wave retardation condition implies that the modulator’s peak relative retardation is π/2 between the Mx and My axes, while the J1 equals maximum condition implies that the relative peak retardation is 1.832 and that circular dichroism signals are maximized.
  8. G. A. Osborne, J. C. Cheng, P. J. Stephens, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 44, 10 (1973). [CrossRef]
  9. The frequency constants are slightly width and thickness dependent. Therefore, for best results, direct frequency measurements of both the optical element and transducers are recommended. The resonance frequency of the complete three-component bar is approximately 0.03% lower than the average individual component frequencies, due to the addition of glue between the drivers and the optical element.
  10. The transmission ranges quoted are always smaller than the ranges obtained at 69% transmission values. We have noted that for wavelengths where some absorption does occur, the PEM produces artifact signals at high CD sensitivities; therefore, those regions are excluded from the λT values.
  11. The piezoelectric quartz transducers are electrically polarized; the electrodes with the same polarization should be driven together.
  12. J. C. Cheng, L. A. Nafie, P. J. Stephens, to be published in J. Opt. Soc. Am.65, 1031 (1975). [CrossRef]
  13. W. A. Shurcliff, Polarized Light (Harvard U. P., Cambridge, Mass., 1962).
  14. T. C. McGill (private communication).

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