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Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Vol. 17, Iss. 10 — May. 15, 1978
  • pp: 1562–1567

Composite bolometers for submillimeter wavelengths

N. S. Nishioka, P. L. Richards, and D. P. Woody  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 17, Issue 10, pp. 1562-1567 (1978)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.17.001562


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Abstract

The fabrication and optimization of composite submillimeter wave bolometers with metal film absorbing elements and doped Ge thermometers are described. Performance characteristics are given for 4 × 4-mm bolometers designed for operation at both 4He and 3He temperatures. The performance expected from such bolometers when they are optimized for various values of background loading is calculated. Current dependent noise, which can arise from any of several sources, is included in the analysis. This can make it impossible to reach the background fluctuation noise limit. Feed structures for these bolometers which employ Winston light concentrators are described.

© 1978 Optical Society of America

History
Original Manuscript: May 16, 1977
Published: May 15, 1978

Citation
N. S. Nishioka, P. L. Richards, and D. P. Woody, "Composite bolometers for submillimeter wavelengths," Appl. Opt. 17, 1562-1567 (1978)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-17-10-1562


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References

  1. F. J. Low, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 1300 (1961). [CrossRef]
  2. N. Coron, G. Dambier, J. Leblanc, in Infrared Detector Techniques for Space Research, V. Manno, J. Ring, Eds. (D. Reidel, Dordrecht-Holland, 1971), pp. 121–131.
  3. F. J. Low, private communication.
  4. J. Clarke, G. I. Hoffer, P. L. Richards, Rev. Phys. Appl. 9, 69 (1974). [CrossRef]
  5. M. W. Werner, J. H. Elias, D. Y. Gezari, M. G. Hauser, W. E. Westbrook, Astrophys. J. 199, L185 (1975). [CrossRef]
  6. J. Clarke, G. I. Hoffer, P. L. Richards, N.-H. Yeh, in Low Temperature Physics—LT14, M. Krusius, M. Vuorio, Eds. (American Elsevier, New York, 1975), Vol. 4, pp. 226–229.
  7. G. I. Hoffer, Ph.D. thesis, U. California and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Report 3759 (1975) (unpublished).
  8. J. Clarke, G. I. Hoffer, P. L. Richards, N.-H. Yeh, J. Appl. Phys. (submitted).
  9. Bolometer optimization has been considered by a number of authors including, for example, S. Zwerdling, R. A. Smith, J. P. Theriault, Infrared Phys. 8, 271 (1968),Infrared Inc. Laboratories (unpublished promotional literature), N. Coron, Infrared Phys.16, 411 (1976). [CrossRef]
  10. W. B. Lewis, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 57, 34 (1947). [CrossRef]
  11. Some authors introduce the bolometer dynamic resistance into the noise expressions derived from equilibrium thermodynamics. This plausible procedure does not appear to have been justified by a proper nonequilibrium analysis. An analogous problem arises with the quantity G in the thermal noise term. Since these corrections change our bolometer optimization by less than 30%, we have not introduced them into this manuscript.
  12. F. J. Low, A. R. Hoffman, Appl. Opt. 2, 649 (1963). [CrossRef]
  13. R. C. Jones, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 1 (1953). [CrossRef]
  14. D. P. Woody, J. C. Mather, N. S. Nishioka, P. L. Richards, Phys. Rev. Lett. 34, 1036 (1975). [CrossRef]
  15. H. D. Drew, A. J. Sievers, Appl. Opt. 8, 2067 (1969).We are grateful to Sievers for furnishing the thermometer material used in the 3He temperature bolometer listed in Table II. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. R. Winston, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 245 (1970). [CrossRef]
  17. A. Rabl, R. Winston, Appl. Opt. 15, 2880 (1976). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. D. A. Harper, R. H. Hildebrand, R. Stiening, R. Winston, Appl. Opt. 15, 53 (1976). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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