The fabrication and principal characteristics of an electrically calibrated absolute radiometer are described. The receiver substrate incorporates an evaporated chromium-nickel thermopile, an electrical shield, a copper thermal diffuser disk, an evaporated chromium electrical heating element, and a goldblack absorber. All insulating layers are evaporated silicon monoxide; the thermopile and heater are made by a photoetching process. The performances of several radiometers are discussed. For example, a 28-junction version has a responsivity and NEP of 93 mV/W and 50 nW, respectively, in air, with a time constant of 15 sec and a surface responsivity uniform to better than 1%. The radiometers require only a few corrections of small magnitude. An analysis of sources of error and residual uncertainties shows that the over-all precision of this type of radiometer is at least 0.5% for a power level of 50 µW. Comparative radiometric measurements are described that support this claim.
© 1978 Optical Society of America
L. P. Boivin and T. C. Smith, "Electrically calibrated radiometer using a thin film thermopile," Appl. Opt. 17, 3067-3075 (1978)