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Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 17, Iss. 21 — Nov. 1, 1978
  • pp: 3376–3383

Yule-Nielsen effect in printing: a physical analysis

F. R. Ruckdeschel and O. G. Hauser  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 17, Issue 21, pp. 3376-3383 (1978)

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The Yule-Nielsen curve-fitting parameter n is derived in terms of the point spread function describing the scattering of light in paper substrates upon which are printed halftone dot or line patterns. The value of n is shown not to depend strongly on either screen frequency or area coverage at low area coverages or highlight regions. However, when the shadow regions are considered, n becomes increasingly dependent on both of these parameters. This dependence is not explicitly allowed for by the Yule-Nielsen equation. It is analytically shown that the value of n approaches 1.0 as the substrate approaches a specular surface and approaches 2.0 as the substrate becomes a perfect diffuser. The value of this analysis is the following. First, it indicates that the Yule-Nielsen equation is physically adequate in highlight and medium shadow regions. Second, an accurate determination of n at any screen frequency can be made from a single measurement of n at any other frequency using an inferred scattering length. Third, this analysis shows that the empirical (Yule-Nielsen) determination of n from dot density and fractional area coverages is valid only in the regions below about 50% area coverage.

© 1978 Optical Society of America

Original Manuscript: December 18, 1977
Published: November 1, 1978

F. R. Ruckdeschel and O. G. Hauser, "Yule-Nielsen effect in printing: a physical analysis," Appl. Opt. 17, 3376-3383 (1978)

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  1. F. W. Clulow, Color, Its Principles and Applications (Morgan and Morgan, New York, 1972).
  2. Pattern from Kodak Bulletin Q-3, “Halftone Methods for the Graphic Arts” (1972).
  3. A. Murray, Franklin Inst. 221, 721 (1936). [CrossRef]
  4. J. A. C. Yule, W. J. Nielsen, TAGA Proc. 3, 65 (1957).
  5. D. Lehmbeck, Xerox Corporation; private communication.
  6. J. A. C. Yule, D. J. Howe, J. H. Altman, TAPPI Proc., 50, 337–344 (1967).
  7. O. Lewis, Xerox Corporation; private communication.

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