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Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Vol. 17, Iss. 8 — Apr. 15, 1978
  • pp: 1228–1237

Estimation of images degraded by film-grain noise

F. Naderi and A. A. Sawchuk  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 17, Issue 8, pp. 1228-1237 (1978)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.17.001228


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Abstract

Film-grain noise describes the intrinsic noise produced by a photographic emulsion during the process of image recording and reproduction. In this paper we consider the restoration of images degraded by film-grain noise. First a detailed model for the over-all photographic imaging system is presented. The model includes linear blurring effects and the signal-dependent effect of film-grain noise. The accuracy of this model is tested by simulating images according to it and comparing the results to images of similar targets that were actually recorded on film. The restoration of images degraded by film-grain noise is then considered in the context of estimation theory. A discrete Wiener filer is developed which explicitly allows for the signal dependence of the noise. The filter adaptively alters its characteristics based on the nonstationary first order statistics of an image and is shown to have advantages over the conventional Wiener filter. Experimental results for modeling and the adaptive estimation filter are presented.

© 1978 Optical Society of America

History
Original Manuscript: March 5, 1977
Published: April 15, 1978

Citation
F. Naderi and A. A. Sawchuk, "Estimation of images degraded by film-grain noise," Appl. Opt. 17, 1228-1237 (1978)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-17-8-1228


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References

  1. F. Naderi, Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Electrical Engineering, U. Southern California, Los Angeles (September1976);USC Image Processing Institute Report 690 (1976).
  2. W. Thomas, SPSE Handbook of Photographic Science and Engineering (Wiley, New York, 1973), p. 768.
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  12. M. Naraghi, Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Electrical Engineering, U. Southern California, Los Angeles (June1975);USC Image Processing Institute Report 580 (1975).
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  18. W. K. Pratt, Digital Image Processing (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1978).
  19. H. C. Andrews, B. R. Hunt, Digital Image Restoration (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1977).

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