The effects of curvature and anisotropy (leaky-mode) losses on the performance of geodesic lenses in Ti-diffused waveguides in LiNbO3 are examined. A model for the lenses is developed that is equivalent to the usual Fraunhofer diffraction theory, modified to account for the path-dependent losses. Numerical calculations show that the curvature losses are dominant and require fabrication of waveguides having well-confined fundamental modes. Higher-order modes are effectively attenuated by the lenses. The leaky-mode losses have the beneficial effect of reducing the side-lobe intensity in the focal plane.
© 1980 Optical Society of America
David W. Vahey, Richard P. Kenan, and William K. Burns, "Effects of anisotropic and curvature losses on the operation of geodesic lenses in Ti:Linbo3," Appl. Opt. 19, 270-275 (1980)