Measurement of optical absorption loss and photorefractive sensitivity (optically induced index changes) in Ti-diffused waveguides and bulk Ti-doped single crystals are reported. The absorption loss of strip guides is found to be 0.3 dB/cm at 0.633 µm, and this is expected to decrease at longer wavelengths. The results demonstrate that Ti impurities do not contribute to the absorption loss or to the photorefractive-index changes directly, rather these parameters are determined by impurities in the substrate crystal. A simple pyroelectric method for electrical adjustment of the optical input coupling is also reported.
© 1980 Optical Society of America
A. M. Glass, I. P. Kaminow, A. A. Ballman, and D. H. Olson, "Absorption loss and photorefractive-index changes in Ti:LiNbO3crystals and waveguides," Appl. Opt. 19, 276-281 (1980)