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Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Vol. 19, Iss. 20 — Oct. 15, 1980
  • pp: 3458–3468

Atmospheric phenomena before and during sunset

M. Menat  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 19, Issue 20, pp. 3458-3468 (1980)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.19.003458


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Abstract

The atmospheric transmittance and the astronomical refraction for low-elevation trajectories are discussed and quantitatively developed. The results are used to describe and calculate some of the fascinating atmospheric phenomena occurring shortly before and during sunset, such as the diminishing apparent luminance of the sun, its shape during sunset, and the green flash.

© 1980 Optical Society of America

History
Original Manuscript: November 13, 1979
Published: October 15, 1980

Citation
M. Menat, "Atmospheric phenomena before and during sunset," Appl. Opt. 19, 3458-3468 (1980)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-19-20-3458


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References

  1. M. Minnaert, The Nature of Light and Colour in the Open Air (Dover, New York, 1954).
  2. D. J. K. O’Connell, S. J., The Green Flash and Other Low Sun Phenomena (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1958).
  3. American Practical Navigator, An Epitome of Navigation, H. O. Publication 9, (U.S. GPO, Washington, D.C., 1966), pp. 523 and 811.
  4. A. I. Mahan, Appl. Opt. 1, 497 (1962). [CrossRef]
  5. J. E. A. Selby et al., “Atmospheric Transmission from 0.25 to 28.5 μm: Supplement lowtran 3B,” AFGL Report TR-76-028 (Air Force Systems Command, USAF, 1976) and previous codes.
  6. S. L. Valley, Ed., Handbook of Geophysics and Space Environments (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1965), Chaps. 7 and 9.
  7. W. E. K. Middleton, Vision Through the Atmosphere (U. Toronto Press, Toronto, 1963), pp. 13–17 and 156. Note that Middleton’s Eq. (8.21) has an error (see the remark by Cohen in Ref. 9 at the bottom of p. 2878).
  8. C. S. Gardner, Appl. Opt. 16, 2427 (1977). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. Cohen, Appl. Opt. 14, 2878 (1975). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. Warner, Infrared Phys. 19, 121 (1979). [CrossRef]
  11. D. P. Woodman, Appl. Opt. 13, 2193 (1974). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. Bertolotti, L. Muzii, D. Sette, Appl. Opt. 8, 117 (1969). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. P. W. Kruse et al., Elements of Infrared Technology (Wiley, New York, 1963), p. 189.
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  15. D. P. Woodman, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 134, 94 (1978).
  16. G. C. Mooradian, M. Geller, P. H. Levine, L. B. Stotts, D. H. Stephens, Appl. Opt. 19, 11 (1980). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. S. D. Gedzelman, Appl. Opt. 14, 2831 (1975). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. The designations average and apparent apply throughout, although they are not always repeated.
  19. L. Levi, Applied Optics (Wiley, New York, 1968), pp. 233 and 514.
  20. M. P. Thekaekara, R. Kruger, C. H. Duncan, Appl. Opt. 8, 1713 (1969). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. G. W. Paltridge, C. M. R. Platt, Radiative Processes in Meteorology and Climatology (Elsevier, New York, 1976), pp. 53 and 55.
  22. Although not used in this study, for completeness the azimuth (from the north) may also be mentioned: sinαN = −cosδs sinhs/cosɛr.
  23. A. K. Angström, K. H. Angström, Sol. Energy 13, 243 (1971). [CrossRef]
  24. D. Rawlins, Am. J. Phys. 47, 126 (1979). [CrossRef]

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