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Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 19, Iss. 20 — Oct. 15, 1980
  • pp: 3458–3468

Atmospheric phenomena before and during sunset

M. Menat  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 19, Issue 20, pp. 3458-3468 (1980)

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The atmospheric transmittance and the astronomical refraction for low-elevation trajectories are discussed and quantitatively developed. The results are used to describe and calculate some of the fascinating atmospheric phenomena occurring shortly before and during sunset, such as the diminishing apparent luminance of the sun, its shape during sunset, and the green flash.

© 1980 Optical Society of America

Original Manuscript: November 13, 1979
Published: October 15, 1980

M. Menat, "Atmospheric phenomena before and during sunset," Appl. Opt. 19, 3458-3468 (1980)

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  18. The designations average and apparent apply throughout, although they are not always repeated.
  19. L. Levi, Applied Optics (Wiley, New York, 1968), pp. 233 and 514.
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  22. Although not used in this study, for completeness the azimuth (from the north) may also be mentioned: sinαN = −cosδs sinhs/cosɛr.
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