Graded-index surface or buried waveguides have been realized by thermal or electrically induced ionic exchange in glass. Deep waveguides can be obtained up to 200 µm when Li+ ions are used. Using Ag+ ions, buried waveguides can be obtained with a maximum index at 80 µm into the substrate. Typical losses for these devices are 0.5 dB/cm. Maximum index variations can be tuned from 0 to 0.11.
© 1980 Optical Society of America
G. Chartier, P. Collier, A. Guez, P. Jaussaud, and Y. Won, "Graded-index surface or buried waveguides by ion exchange in glass," Appl. Opt. 19, 1092-1095 (1980)