The Novaya Zemlya effect, historically identified with the premature rebirth of the sun during the polar night, is a long range optical ducting phenomenon in the lower atmosphere. An occurrence of the effect was observed at Tuktoyaktuk, Canada (69°26′N, 133°02′W) on 16 May 1979, when the minimum solar altitude was — 1°34′. The sun’s image remained above the horizon, within a gray horizontal band, and assumed the various expected shapes, ranging from a bright rectangle filling the band, to three flat suns stacked one over the other, to several thin vertically separated strips. A model for the corresponding atmospheric conditions was identified by matching the observations with images calculated from a computer simulation study.
© 1981 Optical Society of America
W. H. Lehn and B. A. German, "Novaya Zemlya effect: analysis of an observation," Appl. Opt. 20, 2043-2047 (1981)