The images of strong phase edges are calculated for conventional and confocal microscopes operating in the bright-field, dark-field, Zernike, and interference contrast modes by a method which has considerable computational advantages. It is found that in general the confocal images are superior possessing higher contrast than the conventional ones, and the equivalence with the direct view microscope is discussed.
© 1981 Optical Society of America
T. Wilson, "Images of phase edges in conventional and scanning optical microscopes," Appl. Opt. 20, 3238-3244 (1981)