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Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 20, Iss. 19 — Oct. 1, 1981
  • pp: 3415–3422

Optical fiber index profiles by the refracted-ray method (refracted near-field scanning)

M. Young  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 20, Issue 19, pp. 3415-3422 (1981)

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This paper has two primary purposes. First, it provides an elementary description and tutorial overview of the refracted-ray method of measuring fiber index profiles. Second, it presents new results concerning the theoretical foundation, the linearity and precision, and other aspects of the method. In particular, we find that index differences may be measured to 5% or better and conclude by showing ~3% agreement with another laboratory and good agreement with numerical aperture measurements performed by participants in an interlaboratory comparison.

© 1981 Optical Society of America

Original Manuscript: May 6, 1981
Published: October 1, 1981

M. Young, "Optical fiber index profiles by the refracted-ray method (refracted near-field scanning)," Appl. Opt. 20, 3415-3422 (1981)

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  1. W. J. Stewart, A New Technique for Measuring the Refractive Index Profiles of Graded Optical Fibers, in Technical Digest, IOOC (IECE, Tokyo, 1977), pp. 395–398.
  2. K. I. White, Practical Application of the Refracted Near-Field Technique for the Measurement of Optical Fiber Refractive Index Profiles, Opt. Quantum Electron. 11, 185 (1979). [CrossRef]
  3. M. Young, Calibration Technique for Refracted Near-Field Scanning of Optical Fibers, Appl. Opt. 19, 2479 (1980). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. Young, Linearity and Resolution of Refracted Near-Field Scanning, in Technical Digest—Symposium on Optical Fiber Measurements, Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Spec. Publ. 597 (1980).
  5. M. Young, Refracted-Ray Scanning (Refracted Near-Field Scanning) for Measuring Index Profiles of Optical Fibers, Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Tech. Note 1038 (1981).
  6. M. J. Saunders, Optical Fiber Profiles Using the Refracted Near-Field Technique: a Comparison with Other Methods, Appl. Opt. 20, 1645 (1981); M. J. Saunders, Optical Fiber Profiles Using the Refracted Near-Field Technique: A Comparison with Interferometry, Technical Digest—Symposium on Optical Fiber Measurements, 1980, Digest supplement (Optical Electronic Metrology Group, U.S. National Bureau of Standards, Boulder, Colo. 80303, 1980); see also Ref. 4 for complete digest. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  13. M. J. Adams, D. N. Payne, F. M. E. Sladen, Correction Factors for the Determination of Optical-Fibre Refractive-Index Profiles by the Near-Field Scan Technique, Electron. Lett. 12, 281 (1976). [CrossRef]
  14. M. J. Adams, D. N. Payne, F. M. E. Sladen, Length-Dependent Effects Due to Leaky Modes on Multimode Graded-Index Optical Fibers, Opt. Commun. 17, 204 (1976). [CrossRef]
  15. J. A. Arnaud, R. M. deRosier, Novel Technique for Measuring the Index Profile of Optical Fibers, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 55, 1489 (1976).
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  17. For simplicity of nomenclature and for avoiding confusion, I shall refer to both these methods as near-field scanning. When it is necessary to distinguish between them, I shall use the terms entrance-face scanning and exit-face scanning. Likewise, I will not use the somewhat cumbersome term refracted near-field scanning but rather will refer to the refracted-ray method.
  18. K. Petermann, Uncertainties of the Leaky Mode Correction for Near-Square-Law Optical Fibers, Electron. Lett. 13, 513 (1977). [CrossRef]
  19. M. Young, Optics and Lasers, An Engineering Physics Approach (Springer, New York, 1977), Chap. 3.
  20. A. W. Snyder, Leaky-Ray Theory of Optical Waveguides of Circular Cross Section, Appl. Phys. 4, 273 (1974). [CrossRef]
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  23. W. J. Stewart, Detail Resolution in Optical Fibre Index Profiling Methods, AGARD Conf. Proc.219, 28-1 (1977). This work is also expanded in an unpublished paper.
  24. W. J. Stewart, Resolution of Near-Field Optical Fiber Refractive Index Profiling Methods, in Proceedings, International Meeting on Scanned Image Microscopy, London 1980 (Academic, New York, 1981), pp. 233–239.
  25. L. C. Martin, Technical Optics, Vol. 2 (Pitman and Sons, London, 1960), Chap. 3.
  26. I. H. Malitson, Interspecimen Comparison of the Refractive Index of Fused Silica, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1205 (1965). [CrossRef]
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  28. J. W. Fleming, Dispersion in Step-Index Silicone-Clad Fibers, Appl. Opt. 18, 4000 (1979). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. I am indebted to Michael Liva and William Sacher of Cargille Laboratories for providing the liquids along with their indices, their Sellmeier coefficients, and a statement of accuracy.
  30. M. G. Natrella, Experimental Statistics, Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Handb.91, 5-22, 5-23, 5-27 (1963).
  31. D. L. Franzen, E. M. Kim, Interlaboratory Measurement Comparison to Determine the Radiation Angle (N.A.) of Graded-Index Optical Fibers, Appl. Opt. 20, 1218 (1981). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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