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Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Vol. 20, Iss. 23 — Dec. 1, 1981
  • pp: 4000–4008

Optical scales, reticles, gratings, masks, and standards

D. F. Horne  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 20, Issue 23, pp. 4000-4008 (1981)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.20.004000


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Abstract

Photofabrication techniques using positive photoresists, developed for the quantity production of theodolite circular scales, have been adapted to making master chrome masks for photoetching moiré fringe radial diffraction gratings. Diamond stylus wear, or chipping of the diamond tip, on a precision surface measuring instrument is difficult to detect and can cause incorrect surface texture measurements. A stylus wear standard was developed, and fabrication problems were solved by the anisotropic etching of a silicon slice using a chrome mask and photoresist. An essential feature of this process was precise orientation of the mask with a crystal cleavage plane. Experience gained suggests the means for quantitative quality control of diamond tools used for micromachining.

© 1981 Optical Society of America

History
Original Manuscript: May 8, 1981
Published: December 1, 1981

Citation
D. F. Horne, "Optical scales, reticles, gratings, masks, and standards," Appl. Opt. 20, 4000-4008 (1981)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-20-23-4000


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References

  1. D. F. Horne, Dividing, Ruling and Mask Making (Adam Hilger, Bristol, England, 1974), pp. 14, 15, 33–44, 64–67, 93–97, 107–109, 115–124, 212–219.
  2. D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, J. Microsc. 111, 203 (1977). [CrossRef]
  3. D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, “Properties of Liquid Photoresists Used in the Photoetching of Stainless Steel,” J. Photogr. Sci. 25, 250 (1977).
  4. D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, “Quantitative Examination of Photofabricated Profiles. Part 1: Design of Experiments,” J. Photogr. Sci. 25, 254 (1977).
  5. D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, “Quantitative Examination of Photofabricated Profiles. Part 2: Photoetched Profiles in Stainless Steel,” J. Photogr. Sci. 25, 72 (1978).
  6. D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, “Quantitative Examination of Photofabricated Profiles. Part 3: Measurement of Etch Factor,” J. Photogr. Sci. 26, 242 (1978).
  7. D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, “Quantitative Examination of Photofabricated Profiles. Part 4: Photoetched Profiles in Mild Steel,” J. Photogr. Sci. 27, 181 (1979).
  8. D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, H. G. Lee, “Production of Spring Steel Camera Shutter Blades by Photoetching,” Precis. Eng. 1, 25 (1979). [CrossRef]
  9. D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, “Production of High Resolution Photoetched Stainless Steel Plaques,” J. Photogr. Sci. 28, 43 (1980).
  10. D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, “Focusing of Precision Cameras for Photofabrication Mask Production,” J. Photogr. Sci. 28, 136 (1980).
  11. D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, S. Masum, “Quantitative Examination of Photofabricated Profiles. Part 5: Effect of Stencil Integrity on Etch Factor and the Deep Etching of Stainless Steel,” J. Photogr. Sci. 28, 140 (1980).
  12. D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, “Evaluating the Registration of Mirror-Image Photoresist Stencils,” J. Photogr. Sci. 28, 203 (1980).
  13. D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, I. A. Routledge, “Quantitative Examination of Photofabricated Profiles. Part 6: High Depth to Width Ratio Profiles in (110) Silicon Produced by Anisotropic Photoetching,” J. Photogr. Sci. in press (1981).
  14. D. F. Horne, Optical Instruments and Their Applications (Adam Hilger, Bristol, England, 1980), pp. 16, 17, 42–45, 68–69, 172–180, and 218–225.
  15. D. F. Horne, “Recent Advances in Graticule and Mask Making,” Opt. Acta 20, 939 (1973). [CrossRef]
  16. L. A. Sayce, “Gratings in Metrology,” J. Phys. E 5, No. 3, 193 (1972). [CrossRef]
  17. D. F. Horne, “Manufacturing Techniques for Making Precision Circular Scales, Precis. Eng. 2, 77 (1980). [CrossRef]
  18. D. F. Horne, “Improvements in or Relating to Copying Apparatus,” British Patent1248564, filed 27Oct.1967; German Patent1804923, published 26Nov.1968; Japanese Patent77948; U.S. Patent3657545.
  19. P. R. Bellwood, S. C. Bottomley, “Shadow Printing with Automatic Alignment,” at Internepcon ’72 Semiconductor Symposium, Brighton, England, Oct. 1972.
  20. A. Suzki, Y. Hirabayashi, U.S. patent4,199,219, filed 22Apr.1977; A. Suzki, Y. Hirabayashi, U.S. patent4,165,149, filed 17Jan.1978. Canon proximity techniques 1979, pub. CE6179. 1077S2.5.
  21. J. K. Houston, “Light Exposure Means for Shadow or Contact Printing,” British Patent1353739, filed 12Aug.1970.
  22. A. T. Shepherd, Precis. Eng. 1, 61 (1979). [CrossRef]
  23. P. A. McKeown, R. G. Bent, Precis. Eng. 1, 19 (1979). [CrossRef]
  24. D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, I. A. Routledge, “Radial Grating Master Making,” Precis. Eng. 3, No. 4, 000 (1981). Accepted for publication this October but pages unknown. [CrossRef]
  25. ISO/DP5436, Calibration Specimens—stylus instruments, Sec. 4.2, Type B.
  26. D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, I. A. Routledge, G. W. W. Stevens, Precis. Eng. 2, 177 (1980). [CrossRef]
  27. D. F. Horne, Optical Production Technology (Adam Hilger, Bristol, England, 1972, 1979), pp. 282–286, 358, 359.
  28. D. F. Horne, Lens Mechanism Technology (Adam Hilger, Bristol, England, 1975), pp. 153–161.

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