OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 20, Iss. 23 — Dec. 1, 1981
  • pp: 4062–4072

Optical effects of energetic copper-ion irradiation on copper mirrors

John S. Hartman  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 20, Issue 23, pp. 4062-4072 (1981)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1585 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



The optical effects of radiation damage to metal mirrors have been examined using copper-ion beams incident on copper mirrors. Incident ion energies of 2, 5, and 8 MeV were used and dose levels were examined up to 4 × 1016 ions/cm2. Both crystalline and OFHC copper mirrors were studied. In situ ellipsometric data were recorded (λ = 633 nm) during the irradiations to determine the dose-dependent behavior of the radiation effects. Spectral reflectivity and optical scattering were evaluated for samples before and after the irradiations. Complementary analysis of the samples was performed with scanning electron microscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis. Significant changes in ellipometric parameters were noted during the irradiations. After exposure to large dose values, the optical properties of crystalline mirrors were consistent with the optical properties of bare copper. The ellipsometric changes have been attributed to alteration of the surface oxide film. Dose-dependent data have been used to determine the important damage mechanisms.

© 1981 Optical Society of America

Original Manuscript: November 10, 1981
Published: December 1, 1981

John S. Hartman, "Optical effects of energetic copper-ion irradiation on copper mirrors," Appl. Opt. 20, 4062-4072 (1981)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. See, for example, the proceedings of the annual meeting on Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials, most recently: H. E. Bennett, A. J. Glass, A. H. Gunther, B. E. Newnan, Eds., “Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1979,” Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Spec. Publ. 727 (1980). Previous years were edited by A. J. Glass and A. H. Gunther under the same title and printed as Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Spec. Publ. 541 (1978), 509 (1977), 462 (1976), 435 (1975), 414 (1974), 387 (1973), 372 (1972), 356 (1971), and 341 (1970).
  2. See, for example, (a) J. O. Spiegler, Ed. Proceedings, Workshop on Correlation of Neutron and Charged Particle Damage (U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, Oak Ridge, Tenn., 1976), CONS760673. (b) S. T. Picraux, E. P. Eer Nisse, F. L. Vook, Eds., Application of Ion Beams to Metals (Plenum, New York, 1974). [CrossRef]
  3. R. M. A. Azzam, N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1977).
  4. Reference to a company or product name does not imply approval or recommendation from the Pacific Northwest Laboratory or the U.S. Department of Energy to the exclusion of others that may be suitable.
  5. F. L. McCrackin, Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Tech. Note 479, (1969).
  6. J. S. Ahearn, J. P. Monaghan, J. W. Mitchell, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 41, 1853 (1970). [CrossRef]
  7. B. P. Hildebrand, R. L. Gordon, E. V. Allen, Appl. Opt. 13, 177 (1974). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. Manning, G. Mueller, Comput. Phys. Commun. 7, 85 (1974). [CrossRef]
  9. J. Narayan, O. S. Oen, T. S. Noggle, J. Nucl. Mater. 71, 160 (1977). [CrossRef]
  10. F. A. Jenkins, H. E. White, Fundamentals of Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1957), p. 522.
  11. A. W. Czanderna, Ed., Methods of Surface Analysis, Vol. I (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1975).
  12. T. Smith, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 48 (1977). [CrossRef]
  13. F. H. P. M. Habraken, O. L. J. Gijzeman, G. A. Bootsma, Surf. Sci. 96, 482 (1980). [CrossRef]
  14. P. B. Johnson, R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972). [CrossRef]
  15. M. Otter, Z. Phys. 161, 163 (1961). [CrossRef]
  16. S. Roberts, Phys. Rev. 118, 1509 (1960). [CrossRef]
  17. L. G. Schulz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 357 (1954); L. G. Schulz, F. R. Tangherlini, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 362 (1954). [CrossRef]
  18. H. Wieder, A. W. Czanderna, J. Phys. Chem. 66, 816 (1962). [CrossRef]
  19. A. W. Czanderna, H. Wieder, J. Chem. Phys. 39, 489 (1963). [CrossRef]
  20. H. Wieder, A. W. Czanderna, J. Appl. Phys. 37, 184 (1966). [CrossRef]
  21. A. W. Czanderna, F. L. Boyko, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 6, 746 (1969). [CrossRef]
  22. P. C. Ladilfe, A. W. Czanderna, J. R. Biegen, Thin Solid Films 10, 403 (1972). [CrossRef]
  23. E. G. Clarke, A. W. Czanderna, Thin Solid Films 12, 443 (1972). [CrossRef]
  24. A. W. Czanderna, F. L. Boyko, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 9, 393 (1972). [CrossRef]
  25. E. G. Clarke, A. W. Czanderna, Surf. Sci. 49, 529 (1975). [CrossRef]
  26. M. G. Hapase, M. K. Gharpurey, A. G. Biswas, Surf. Sci. 9, 87 (1968). [CrossRef]
  27. F. W. Young, Ph.D. Dissertation, U. Va., Charlottesville, 1950.
  28. E. C. Butcher, A. J. Dyer, N. E. Gilbert, J. Phys. D, Ser 2, 1, 1673 (1968). [CrossRef]
  29. V. F. Drobny, D. L. Pulfrey, Thin Solid Films 61, 89 (1979). [CrossRef]
  30. M. H. Anderson, Ph.D. Thesis, Auburn U., Auburn, Ala., 1977.
  31. T. Tanaka, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18, 1043 (1979). [CrossRef]
  32. F. W. Young, J. V. Cathcart, A. T. Gwathmey, Acta Metall. 4, 145 (1956). [CrossRef]
  33. T. N. Rhodin, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 72, 5102 (1950). [CrossRef]
  34. T. N. Rhodin, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 73, 3143 (1951). [CrossRef]
  35. L. F. Wagner, W. E. Spicer, Surf. Sci. 46, 301 (1974). [CrossRef]
  36. D. E. Gray, Ed., American Institute of Physics Handbook (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1957), pp. 6–105.
  37. P. D. Townsend, J. C. Kelly, N. E. W. Hartley, Ion Implantation, Sputtering and Their Applications (Academic, London, 1976).
  38. W. G. Johnston, J. H. Rosolowski, A. M. Turkalo, T. Lauritzen, J. Nucl. Mater. 46, 273 (1973). [CrossRef]
  39. H. M. Naguib, R. Kelly, Radiat. Effects 25, 1 (1975). [CrossRef]
  40. D. A. G. Bruggeman, Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 24, 636 (1935).
  41. D. E. Aspenes, J. B. Theeten, F. Hottier, Phys. Rev. B20, 3292 (1979).
  42. I. Ohlidal, F. Lukes, Opt. Acta 19, 817 (1972). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited