Measurements of the radiance and polarization of the skylight at South Pole Station, Antarctica, were made for clear cloud-free skies and cloudless skies with ice crystal precipitation. The measurements were made at six narrowband wavelengths from 321 to 872 nm in the principal plane. The data show that scattering by ice crystals increases the radiance in the backscatter plane, decreases it in the solar plane, and shifts the radiance minimum to a point closer to the sun. The crystals decrease the maximum value of linear polarization and shift the position of the maximum away from the sun. The influence of ice crystal scattering is greatest at the longer wavelengths.
Bruce W. Fitch and Kinsell L. Coulson, "Effects on skylight at South Pole Station, Antarctica, by ice crystal precipitation in the atmosphere," Appl. Opt. 22, 71-74 (1983)