A diffraction-limited lidar provides for effective rejection of background light. Characteristics of a monostatic system are computed. The range sensitivity is generally different from a square-law dependence. The effect of optical refractive turbulence is analyzed. There is a trade-off between background rejection and insensitivity to refractive turbulence. A monostatic system is much less sensitive to refractive turbulence than a bistatic system is.
S. F. Clifford and L. Lading, "Monostatic diffraction-limited lidars: the impact of optical refractive turbulence," Appl. Opt. 22, 1696-1701 (1983)