A device utilizing four inversion layer photodiodes in a light-trapping arrangement was constructed and tested. The device was found to have a photon-to-electron conversion efficiency of 0.999 for short wavelength and low power visible radiation. It was found that applying a reverse bias voltage extended the high quantum efficiency response over the entire visible spectrum and up to the highest radiant power level studied (several milliwatts). Several radiometrically important characteristics were studied and the results presented: spectral reflectance; polarization sensitivity; quantum efficiency vs wavelength, photon flux density, and reverse bias voltage; and dark current vs reverse bias.
Edward F. Zalewski and C. Richard Duda, "Silicon photodiode device with 100% external quantum efficiency," Appl. Opt. 22, 2867-2873 (1983)