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Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 22, Iss. 2 — Jan. 15, 1983
  • pp: 318–327

Time-resolved x-ray transmission grating spectrometer for studying laser-produced plasmas

N. M. Ceglio, R. L. Kauffman, A. M. Hawryluk, and H. Medecki  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 22, Issue 2, pp. 318-327 (1983)

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The development of a new time-resolved x-ray spectrometer is reported in which a free-standing x-ray transmission grating is coupled to a soft x-ray streak camera. The instrument measures continuous x-ray spectra with 20-psec temporal resolution and moderate spectral resolution (Δλ ≥ 1 Å) over a broad spectral range (0.1–5 keV) with high sensitivity and large information recording capacity. Its capabilities are well suited to investigation of laser-generated plasmas, and they nicely complement the characteristics of other time-resolved spectroscopic techniques presently in use. The transmission grating spectrometer has been used on a variety of laser-plasma experiments. We report the first measurements of the temporal variation of continuous low-energy x-ray spectra from laser-irradiated disk targets.

© 1983 Optical Society of America

Original Manuscript: August 2, 1982
Published: January 15, 1983

N. M. Ceglio, R. L. Kauffman, A. M. Hawryluk, and H. Medecki, "Time-resolved x-ray transmission grating spectrometer for studying laser-produced plasmas," Appl. Opt. 22, 318-327 (1983)

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  1. V. W. Slivinsky, in Low Energy X-ray Diagnostics, D. T. Attwood, B. L. Henke, Eds. (AIP, New York, 1981), p. 6; K. G. Tirsell, H. N. Kornblum, V. W. Slivinsky, LLNL report UCRL-81478 (1979), (unpublished).
  2. R. L. Kauffman, G. L. Stradling, E. L. Pierce, H. Medecki, Low Energy X-ray Diagnostics, D. T. Attwood, B. L. Henke, Eds. (AIP, New York, 1981), p. 66; R. L. Kauffman, G. L. Stradling, D. T. Attwood, LLNL report UCRL-81373 (1978), unpublished.
  3. G. L. Stradling et al., in Low Energy X-ray Diagnostics, D. T. Attwood, B. L. Henke, Eds. (AIP, New York, 1981), p. 292.
  4. M. H. Key et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 1667 (1980). [CrossRef]
  5. A. M. Hawryluk, N. M. Ceglio, R. H. Price, J. Melngailis, H. I. Smith, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. (Nov.–Dec, 1981); A. M. Hawryluk, Ph.D. Thesis, MIT (1981).
  6. N. M. Ceglio, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Price, Proc. Soc. Photo-opt. Instrum. Eng. 316High Resolution Soft X-ray Optics, (1981); Appl. Opt. 21, 3953 (1982).
  7. Equation (2) is accurate in practical laboratory applications in which the angle of incidence (relative to the grating normal) and the diffraction angle are both small. If these angles are not small, a more appropriate dispersion relation is mλ = d(sinθ0 + sinα), where θ0 and α are the diffraction and incidence angles both measured relative to the grating normal.
  8. X-ray streak camera technology was developed and has been used at LLNL since 1974; C. F. McConagny, L. W. Coleman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 268 (1974); D. T. Attwood et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 37, 499 (1976); Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 282 (1977). [CrossRef]
  9. I. P. Csorba, RCA Rev. 32, 650 (1971); E. K. Zavoiskii, S. D. Fanchenko, Sov. Phys. Dokl. 1, 285 (1956).
  10. G. L. Stradling et al., Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 23, 880 (1978); G. L. Stradling, M. S. Thesis, LLNL report UCRL-52568 (unpublished); G. L. Stradling, Ph.D. Thesis, U.C. Davis (1982).
  11. For laser-generated plasmas, viewed over the broad spectral range of this instrument, the size of the emitting region may be wavelength dependent. For example, the region of low-energy emission may be much larger than the region of high-energy emission. In such cases Δλ, which is source-size limited [Eq. (1)], will be wavelength dependent. This must be accounted for in Eq. (7) and the subsequent unfold procedures.
  12. Among the various contributions to the streak camera response function, that of greatest concern is the photocathode response in the spectral region of ~100 eV. We have used the results of B. L. Henke, J. P. Knauer, K. Premaratne, J. Appl. Phys. 52, 1509 (1981) but are concerned about cathode aging effects as reported by R. H. Day, P. Lee, E. B. Saloman, D. J. Nagel, J. Appl. Phys. 52, 6965 (1981). Such aging effects warrant further study and may bring into question the shape of the unfolded spectra of ~100–200 eV. [CrossRef]
  13. P. L. Hagelstein, Ph.D. Thesis, LLNL report UCRL-53100 (1981) (unpublished).
  14. The prompt response of higher-energy x-ray emissions observed here is consistent with earlier multichannel streak camera measurements of laser-irradiated disk targets: G. L. Stradling, R. L. Kauffman, LLNL report UCRL-50021-78 (1978), p. 6-2 (unpublished).
  15. The high-frequency structure on these plots may be attributed to noise, not physically meaningful spectroscopic processes within the plasma. The scale length of this structure is well below the spectral resolution of the instrument.
  16. In both the A-series and S-series experiments the measured width of the zeroth-order component is a summation over the contributions from the entire source spectrum (from the UV to high-energy x rays), not limited by the spectral range of the first-order diffraction. In this regard the measured zeroth-order width may be an overestimate of the spectral resolution Δλ at a particular wavelength (see Ref. 11). However, to the extent that the x-ray line emission dominates the zeroth-order component in the S-series experiments, the measured zeroth-order width may be a good estimate of the spectral resolution at those x-ray energies.
  17. Although the spectral range for first-order diffracted radiation is 2–30 Å in these experiments, the contributions to the zeroth order extend to much longer wavelengths (see Ref. 16).

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