A new two-wavelength lidar technique for remotely measuring the pressure profile using the trough absorption region between two strong lines in the oxygen A band is described. The theory of integrated vertical path, differential ranging, and horizontal path pressure measurements is given with methods to desensitize and correct for temperature effects. The properties of absorption troughs are described and shown to reduce errors due to laser frequency jitter by up to 2 orders of magnitude. A general analysis, including laser bandwidth effects, demonstrates that pressure measurements with an integrated vertical path technique are typically fifty times more accurate than with a differential ranging technique. Simulations show 0.1–0.3% accuracy for ground and Shuttle-based pressure profile and surface pressure experiments.
C. Laurence Korb and Chi Y. Weng, "Differential absorption lidar technique for measurement of the atmospheric pressure profile," Appl. Opt. 22, 3759-3770 (1983)