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Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 22, Iss. 23 — Dec. 1, 1983
  • pp: 3874–3879

Microbending and modal noise

Dag Roar Hjelme and Alan Rolf Mickelson  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 22, Issue 23, pp. 3874-3879 (1983)

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The effect of microbending loss on SNRs received from multimode graded-index fibers excited by single-mode laser sources is considered. Analytical expressions are derived which describe the combined effects of microbending loss and detector misalignment loss on the integrated intensity statistics in the fiber. The theoretical predictions for the SNR are experimentally checked and found to be in good agreement with the experimental data.

© 1983 Optical Society of America

Original Manuscript: April 2, 1983
Published: December 1, 1983

Dag Roar Hjelme and Alan Rolf Mickelson, "Microbending and modal noise," Appl. Opt. 22, 3874-3879 (1983)

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  1. R. E. Epworth, “The Phenomena of Modal Noise in Analogue and Digital Optical Fibre Systems,” in Technical Digest, Fourth European Conference on Optical Communication, Genoa (1978), pp. 492–501.This was the first paper to point out that speckle in fibers could be a noise generation mechanism, and in this paper the term modal noise was coined.
  2. See, for example, B. S. Kawasaki, K. O. Hill, Y. Tremblay, Opt. Lett. 6, 499 (1981). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. G. E. Miller, in Technical Digest, Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Communication, (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1983), paper TUG14.
  4. E. G. Rawson, R. V. Schmidt, R. E. Norton, M. D. Bailey, L. C. Stewart, H. G. Murray, in Technical Digest, Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1982), paper TUFF1.
  5. Y. Tremblay, B. S. Kawasaki, K. O. Hill, Appl. Opt. 20, 1652 (1981).This is a recent reference with a discussion of various previous results. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. R. Mickelson, A. Weierholt, Appl. Opt. 22, 3084 (1983). [CrossRef]
  7. K. O. Hill, Y. Tremblay, B. S. Kawasaki, Opt. Lett. 5, 270 (1980). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. W. Goodman, E. G. Rawson, Opt. Lett. 6, 324 (1981). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. W. Goodman, “Statistical Properties of Laser Speckle Patterns,” in Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, J. C. Dainty, Ed. (Springer, New York, 1975). [CrossRef]
  10. B. Daino, G. DeMarchis, S. Piazzola, Electron. Lett. 15, 755 (1979).This work was the first one to apply conventional speckle statistics to an optical fiber. The theoretical prediction in this work was that the fiber speckle pattern should be open, that is, that its statistics should formally match those of a conventional speckle pattern, which is a small sample of a larger pattern. This result was indeed what was measured in this work probably due to a large microbending loss in the speedup unit employed here. One would expect a cable under the effect of strong microbending to exhibit an open speckle pattern. [CrossRef]
  11. M. Abramowtiz, I. Stegun, Handbook of Mathematical Functions (Dover, New York, 1965).
  12. A. R. Mickelson, M. Eriksrud, Opt. Lett. 7, 572 (1982). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. C. Pask, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 572 (1978). [CrossRef]

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