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Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Vol. 23, Iss. 12 — Jun. 15, 1984
  • pp: 1931–1936

Reflection from a field of randomly located vertical protrusions

Joseph Otterman and George H. Weiss  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 23, Issue 12, pp. 1931-1936 (1984)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.23.001931


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Abstract

Reflection from a field of randomly located, thin vertical cylinders is analyzed. The bidirectional reflectivity Rdf for the direct solar beam (first reflection) is R d f ( s , z , θ 0 , θ ) = r c ( - z cos z + sin z ) 1 - exp [ - s ( tan θ 0 + tan θ ) ] 4 ( cot θ 0 + cot θ ) , where z is the azimuth (in radians) measured in a horizontal plane from the antisolar direction, θ0 is the zenith angle of the solar beam, θ is the viewing zenith angle, s is the projection on a vertical plane of cylindrical sections over a unit area, and rc is the Lambert law spectral reflectivity of the cylinders. The bidirectional reflectivity thus tends to rcπ tanθ0/4 at the azimuth π and at very large viewing zenith angles, such that tanθ ≫ tanθ0 and tanθ0 ⩾ 1. A comparison with the bidirectional reflectivities measured over dense vegetation of a Florida swamp indicates that this model describes a highly significant component of this canopy reflection. The possibility of extracting information about the reflectivity of the plants material (rc) and about the canopy structure (s) from the reflectivities measured at various solar elevations is discussed and an approach for such extraction is formulated. The extraction of rc appears practical; that of s, difficult.

© 1984 Optical Society of America

History
Original Manuscript: September 10, 1983
Published: June 15, 1984

Citation
Joseph Otterman and George H. Weiss, "Reflection from a field of randomly located vertical protrusions," Appl. Opt. 23, 1931-1936 (1984)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-23-12-1931


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References

  1. K. L. Coulson, Appl. Opt. 5, 905 (1966). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. V. V. Salomonson, “Anisotropy in the Reflected Solar Radiation,” Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State U., Fort Collins (1968), 143 pp.
  3. V. V. Salomonson, W. R. Marlatt, Remote Sensing Environ. 2, 1 (1972). [CrossRef]
  4. D. S. Kimes, Appl. Opt. 22, 1364 (1983). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. Ross, The Radiation Regime and Architecture of Plant Stands (Dr. W. Junk Publishers, The Hague, 1981). [CrossRef]
  6. H. Moldau, “Vegetative Course of Luminance Factor of Leaves of Some Plants,” in Questions on Radiation Regime of Plant Stand, Academy of Science ESSR, Institute of Physics and Astronomy, Tartu (1965), in Russian, pp. 89–95.
  7. J. Otterman, “Albedo of Forest Modeled as a Plane with Dense Protrusions,” J. Climate Appl. Meteorol. 23, 297 (1984). [CrossRef]

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