A pulsed coherent CO2 lidar was employed to measure water vapor profiles by the differential absorption lidar (DIAL) technique. Measurements were obtained to ranges of 10 km along horizontal paths and 6 km when the lidar beam angle was elevated. Comparisons with nearby rawinsonde soundings showed fairly good agreement, although a tendency for the lidar to overestimate relative to the sonde was observed. Uncertainties in the individual measurements were attributable primarily to speckle, quantum noise, and atmospheric nonstationarities. The DIAL data set was also used to obtain radial wind velocity measurements at ranges beyond the maximum range of the concentration measurement.
R. Michael Hardesty, "Coherent DIAL measurement of range-resolved water vapor concentration," Appl. Opt. 23, 2545-2553 (1984)