This paper reports the creation of a tandem liquid crystal cell arrangement capable of simulating the performance of a spherical lens. Electrical modulation of the index of refraction creates focusing behavior. The modulation is induced by a set of electrodes whose individual voltages are arranged to provide a cylindrical exit wave front for a uniform plane-wave input. Two such cells with orthogonal electrodes arranged in cascade create spherical lens performance. Experimental evidence using a lens with a relatively small number of electrodes is presented. Applications for such structures, once improved, would include real-time focus adjustment for optical disk readers and hand-held photographic equipment as well as aberration compensation for long path-length optical systems.
© 1984 Optical Society of America
Stephen T. Kowel, Philipp Kornreich, and Akbar Nouhi, "Adaptive spherical lens," Appl. Opt. 23, 2774-2777 (1984)