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Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 23, Iss. 16 — Aug. 15, 1984
  • pp: 2791–2797

Oceanographic biooptical profiling system

Raymond C. Smith, Charles R. Booth, and Jeffrey L. Star  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 23, Issue 16, pp. 2791-2797 (1984)

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A new oceanographic instrument to measure underwater optical, biological, and physical properties has been designed, built, and used extensively at sea. The new instrument system is a significant advance that permits optimum sampling strategies using ship, aircraft, and satellite optical sensors for ocean research. The design criteria for the biooptical profiling system included the rapid acquisition of data to accommodate shipboard synoptic sampling; the measurement of the necessary parameters for providing appropriate contemporaneous surface data for remote sensors; the compatibility of the data acquisition system with conventional conductivity temperature depth-type cables and winches on the oceanographic fleet; the capability of real-time display of data along with rapid preliminary data reduction at sea. The primary instrument package in this profiling system is a new microprocessor controlled multiwavelength spectroradiometer. A description of the instrument and examples of data are presented.

© 1984 Optical Society of America

Original Manuscript: March 20, 1984
Published: August 15, 1984

Raymond C. Smith, Charles R. Booth, and Jeffrey L. Star, "Oceanographic biooptical profiling system," Appl. Opt. 23, 2791-2797 (1984)

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  1. T. Joyce, P. Wiebe, “Warm Core Rings of the Gulf Stream,” Oceanus 26, 34 (1983).
  2. J. L. Mueller, R. C. Smith, J. R. V. Zaneveld, ODEX Cruise Report (1982).
  3. W. E. Esaias, “Remote Sensing in Biological Oceanography,” Oceanus 24, 32 (1981).
  4. R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Oceanic Chlorophyll Concentrations as Determined by Satellite (czcs),” Mar. Biol. 66, 269 (1982). [CrossRef]
  5. R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, R. W. Eppley, “Correlation of Primary Production as Measured Aboard Ship in Southern California Coastal Waters and as Estimated from Satellite Chlorophyll Images,” Mar. Biol. 66, 281 (1982). [CrossRef]
  6. E. A. Hovis et al., “Nimbus 7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner: System Description and Initial Imagery,” Science 210, 60 (1980). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. L. Mueller, W. A. Hovis, “Phytoplankton Pigments from the Nimbus 7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner: Comparisons with Surface Measurements,” Science 210, 63 (1980). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H. R. Gordon, “Removal of Atmospheric Effects from Satellite Imagery of the Oceans,” Appl. Opt. 17, 1631 (1978). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. R. C. Smith, W. H. Wilson, in Oceanography from Space, J. F. R. Grower, Ed. (Plenum, New York, 1981).
  10. H. R. Gordon, A. Morel, Remote Assessment of Ocean Color for Interpretation of Satellite Visible Imagery, a Review (Springer, New York, 1983).
  11. J. W. Campbell, J. P. Thomas, Eds., “The Chesapeake Bay Plume Study: Superflux 1980,” NASA Conference Proceedings CP2188 (1981).
  12. A. Morel, R. C. Smith, “Terminology and Units in Optical Oceanography,” Mar. Geod. 5, 335 (1982). [CrossRef]
  13. H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, “Clear Water Radiances for Atmospheric Correction of Coastal Zone Color Scanner Imagery,” Appl. Opt. 20, 4175 (1981). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. K. S. Baker, R. C. Smith, “Bio-Optical Classification and Model of Natural Waters: II,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 27, 500 (1982). [CrossRef]
  15. R. C. Smith, W. H. Wilson, “Photo Scalar Irradiance,” Appl. Opt. 11, 934 (1972). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. C. R. Booth, “The Design and Evaluation of a Measurement System for Photosynthetically Active Quantum Scalar Irradiance,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 21, 326 (1976). [CrossRef]
  17. R. Barts, J. R. V. Zaneveld, H. Pak, “A Transmissometer for Profiling and Moored Observations in Water,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 180, 102 (1978).
  18. R. C. Smith, “An Underwater Spectral Irradiance Collector,” J. Mar. Res. 27, 341 (1969).
  19. R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, P. Dustan, “Fluorometer Techniques for Measurement of Oceanic Chlorophyll in the Support of Remote Sensing,” Scripps Inst. Oceanogr. Ref. 81-17 (1981).
  20. A. M. Pederson, M. C. Gregg, “Development of a Small in-situ Conductivity Instrument,” IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. OE-4, 69 (1975).
  21. R. Stair, W. E. Schneider, J. K. Jackson, “A New Standard of Spectral Irradiance,” Appl. Opt. 2, 1151 (1963). [CrossRef]
  22. National Bureau of Standards Opt. Rad. News20 (1977).
  23. UNESCO, Ninth Report of the Joint Panel on Oceanographic Tables and Standards, UNESCO Tech. Pap. Mar. Sci.30 (1979).
  24. UNESCO, Tenth Report of the Joint Panel on Oceanographic Tables and Standards, UNESCO Tech. Pap. Mar. Sci.36 (1981).
  25. UNESCO Tech. Pap. Mar. Sci. 37 (1981).
  26. E. L. Lewis, “The Practical Salinity Scale, 1978, and its Antecedents,” IEEE J. Ocean Eng. 5, 3 (1980). [CrossRef]
  27. H. R. Gordon, R. C. Smith, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Introduction to Ocean Optics,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 206, 14 (1979).
  28. R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Penetration of UV-B and Biologically Effective Dose-Rates in Natural Waters,” Photochem. Photobiol. 29, 311 (1979). [CrossRef]
  29. R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Stratospheric Ozone, Middle Ultraviolet Radiation and 14C Measurements of Marine Productivity,” Science 208, 529 (1980).
  30. Special issue on Oceanography from Space, Oceanus 24 (1981).

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