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Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 23, Iss. 9 — May. 1, 1984
  • pp: 1347–1352

Optical multichannel analysis with rapid mass storage of spectra: application to CARS measurements of temperature fluctuations

David Klick, Kenneth A. Marko, and Lajos Rimai  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 23, Issue 9, pp. 1347-1352 (1984)

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A simple optical multichannel analyzer consisting of SIT vidicon camera, videotape recorder, and video digitizer was used to record coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering N2 spectra for temperature measurements inside a firing internal combustion engine. A high-resolution spectrum was recorded from each engine cycle at a 10-Hz repetition rate. Thousands of spectra were rapidly stored in inexpensive nonvolatile memory (videotape) to be digitized and analyzed later for the generation of temperature histograms. In addition to this spectroscopic application, the same equipment can be used for fluid dynamic and combustion imaging experiments.

© 1984 Optical Society of America

Original Manuscript: November 10, 1983
Published: May 1, 1984

David Klick, Kenneth A. Marko, and Lajos Rimai, "Optical multichannel analysis with rapid mass storage of spectra: application to CARS measurements of temperature fluctuations," Appl. Opt. 23, 1347-1352 (1984)

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  14. Cyclic variation in pressure is seen in all IC engines, including ours. Cyclic variation in temperature was reported by us in Ref. 10. Time of flame arrival was measured by the deflection of an expanded He–Ne beam focused in the chamber center. Variations of ±3 CA° in this time were seen and were correlated with cyclic variations in peak pressure. All these variations were greatly reduced in the study of Ref. 6 by inducing an unrealistically large swirl.
  15. Viewing the pump beam spectrum with the high-resolution spectrometer, we see three peaks (modes) with the etalon detuned. Tuning the etalon suppresses the sidebands far below the central peak, giving essentially single-mode operation. The etalon is tuned before each run and remains tuned for the duration of a run.
  16. A set of simultaneous engine and reference spectra were acquired with the engine filled with Ideally, the divided spectrum CO2. for each pulse would be flat, but the normalization is not perfect and noise remains. Integrating spectral passbands of these normalized spectra as we would for a temperature determination, we found an effect on temperature due to the imperfect normalization of ±80 K at 2000 K. Thus, imperfect normalization accounts in large part for the imprecision of CARS temperature readings in a stable burner reported earlier by us.10An alternative normalization procedure has been employed11 which assumes that the overall dye laser shape is repeatable. To test this procedure, we normalized the set of engine spectra described above with the average reference spectrum and found only a 20% rise in the temperature imprecision that would be due to imperfect normalization and dye laser noise. However, for some pulses there were regions of the engine spectrum that poorly matched the average reference spectrum. If individual reference spectra are not used for normalization, the most stable region of the dye laser spectral profile should be centered over the region of interest, and a method for deleting spectra generated by distorted dye profiles should be employed.11
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  20. For most of the engine cycle, almost every pulse yields a usable spectrum. Only from 0–6 CA° are the majority of spectra deflected, coinciding with the fluctuating time of flame arrival.14 It is clear that the temperature histograms acquired during this short period might be biased (e.g., more hot spectra than cold spectra might be deflected), and that the histograms may have more to do with cyclic variation in flame arrival than with flame structure.
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  23. The equivalent analog operation could be performed with the signal from a standard camera turned at 90° so that the electron beam scans along spectral lines.
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