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Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Vol. 24, Iss. 15 — Aug. 1, 1985
  • pp: 2373–2379

Scanning differential phase contrast optical microscope: application to surface studies

C. W. See, M. Vaez Iravani, and H. K. Wickramasinghe  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 24, Issue 15, pp. 2373-2379 (1985)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.24.002373


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Abstract

The characteristics and theory of operation of a new scanning differential phase contrast optical microscope are described, and a number of results are presented. High-contrast micrographs of a polished stainless steel sample are included, showing clearly the grain boundaries as well as some fine structure within the grains. Micrographs are also presented of natural diamonds both in polished and unpolished forms. In the former many polishing lines are visible, and in the latter one can clearly see a large number of stacking faults. Results on the study of monolayers of Langmuir-Blodgett films are also presented. The micrographs clearly show the boundaries as well as nonuniformities within the films. The ability of our system to image objects showing refractive-index variation is demonstrated by producing micrographs of an exposed but undeveloped photoresist film and a partially doped Si sample. In each case a qualitative comparison is made with the differential interference (Nomarski) micrograph of the same field of view.

© 1985 Optical Society of America

History
Original Manuscript: January 20, 1984
Published: August 1, 1985

Citation
C. W. See, M. Vaez Iravani, and H. K. Wickramasinghe, "Scanning differential phase contrast optical microscope: application to surface studies," Appl. Opt. 24, 2373-2379 (1985)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-24-15-2373


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References

  1. G. Nomarski, “Microinterféromètre différential à ondes polariseés,” J. Phys. Radium 16, 95 (1955).
  2. H. K. Wickramasinghe, S. Ameri, C. W. See, “Differential Phase Contrast Optical Microscope with 1-Å Depth Resolution,” Electron. Lett. 18, 22 (1982). [CrossRef]
  3. R. L. Whitman, A. Korpel, “Probing of Acoustic Surface Perturbations by Coherent Light,” Appl. Opt. 8, 1567 (1969). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. M. De La Rue, R. F. Humpheryes, I. Mason, E. A. Ash, “Acoustic-Surface-Wave Amplitude and Phase Measurements using Laser Probes,” Proc. IEE 119, 117 (1972).
  5. G. E. Sommargren, B. J. Thompson, “Linear Phase Microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 12, 2130 (1973). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. L. J. Laub, “AC Differential Interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 737 (1977).
  7. K. B. Blodgett, I. Langmuir, “Built-up Films of Barium Stearate and their Optical Properties,” Phys. Rev. 51, 964 (1973). [CrossRef]
  8. C. W. Pitt, L. M. Walpita, “Optical Waveguiding in Langmuir Films,” Electron. Lett. 12, 18 (1976). [CrossRef]
  9. G. E. Jellison, F. A. Modine, C. W. White, R. F. Wood, R. T. Young, “Optical Properties of Heavily Doped Silicon Between 1.5 and 4.1 eV,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 1414 (1981). [CrossRef]

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