OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 24, Iss. 15 — Aug. 1, 1985
  • pp: 2373–2379

Scanning differential phase contrast optical microscope: application to surface studies

C. W. See, M. Vaez Iravani, and H. K. Wickramasinghe  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 24, Issue 15, pp. 2373-2379 (1985)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (2248 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



The characteristics and theory of operation of a new scanning differential phase contrast optical microscope are described, and a number of results are presented. High-contrast micrographs of a polished stainless steel sample are included, showing clearly the grain boundaries as well as some fine structure within the grains. Micrographs are also presented of natural diamonds both in polished and unpolished forms. In the former many polishing lines are visible, and in the latter one can clearly see a large number of stacking faults. Results on the study of monolayers of Langmuir-Blodgett films are also presented. The micrographs clearly show the boundaries as well as nonuniformities within the films. The ability of our system to image objects showing refractive-index variation is demonstrated by producing micrographs of an exposed but undeveloped photoresist film and a partially doped Si sample. In each case a qualitative comparison is made with the differential interference (Nomarski) micrograph of the same field of view.

© 1985 Optical Society of America

Original Manuscript: January 20, 1984
Published: August 1, 1985

C. W. See, M. Vaez Iravani, and H. K. Wickramasinghe, "Scanning differential phase contrast optical microscope: application to surface studies," Appl. Opt. 24, 2373-2379 (1985)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. G. Nomarski, “Microinterféromètre différential à ondes polariseés,” J. Phys. Radium 16, 95 (1955).
  2. H. K. Wickramasinghe, S. Ameri, C. W. See, “Differential Phase Contrast Optical Microscope with 1-Å Depth Resolution,” Electron. Lett. 18, 22 (1982). [CrossRef]
  3. R. L. Whitman, A. Korpel, “Probing of Acoustic Surface Perturbations by Coherent Light,” Appl. Opt. 8, 1567 (1969). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. M. De La Rue, R. F. Humpheryes, I. Mason, E. A. Ash, “Acoustic-Surface-Wave Amplitude and Phase Measurements using Laser Probes,” Proc. IEE 119, 117 (1972).
  5. G. E. Sommargren, B. J. Thompson, “Linear Phase Microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 12, 2130 (1973). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. L. J. Laub, “AC Differential Interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 737 (1977).
  7. K. B. Blodgett, I. Langmuir, “Built-up Films of Barium Stearate and their Optical Properties,” Phys. Rev. 51, 964 (1973). [CrossRef]
  8. C. W. Pitt, L. M. Walpita, “Optical Waveguiding in Langmuir Films,” Electron. Lett. 12, 18 (1976). [CrossRef]
  9. G. E. Jellison, F. A. Modine, C. W. White, R. F. Wood, R. T. Young, “Optical Properties of Heavily Doped Silicon Between 1.5 and 4.1 eV,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 1414 (1981). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited