OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 24, Iss. 17 — Sep. 1, 1985
  • pp: 2846–2850

Coupling characteristics of LiNbO3 directional couplers

Craig T. Mueller and Elsa Garmire  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 24, Issue 17, pp. 2846-2850 (1985)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (692 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



An analytic model of a Ti:LiNbO3 channel waveguide has been developed to predict conveniently the coupling coefficient of directional couplers based on near-field intensity measurements. This model is compared to experimental results at wavelengths of 0.63 and 0.81 μm and indicates an accuracy of predicting coupling coefficients within a factor of 2 without prior knowledge of the fabrication parameters.

© 1985 Optical Society of America

Original Manuscript: March 4, 1985
Published: September 1, 1985

Craig T. Mueller and Elsa Garmire, "Coupling characteristics of LiNbO3 directional couplers," Appl. Opt. 24, 2846-2850 (1985)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. R. C. Alferness, “Guided-Wave Devices for Optical Communication,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 946 (1981). [CrossRef]
  2. T. Suhara, Y. Handa, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “Analysis of Optical Channel Waveguides and Directional Couplers with Graded-Index Profile,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 807 (1979). [CrossRef]
  3. A. Sharma, E. Sharma, I. C. Goyal, A. K. Ghatak, “The Variational Technique for Diffused Directional Couplers,” Opt. Commun. 34, 39 (1980). [CrossRef]
  4. M. D. Feit, J. A. Fleck, L. McCaughan, “Comparison of Calculated and Measured Performance of Diffused Channel-Waveguide Couplers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 1296 (1983). [CrossRef]
  5. J. Ctyroky, M. Hofman, J. Janta, J. Schrofel, “3-D Analysis of LiNbO3: Ti Channel Waveguides and Directional Couplers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 400 (1984). [CrossRef]
  6. C. H. Bulmer, W. K. Burns, “Polarization Characteristics of LiNbO3 Channel Waveguide Directional Couplers,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-1, 227 (1983). [CrossRef]
  7. M. Fukuma, J. Noda, H. Iwasaki, “Optical Properties in Titanium-Diffused LiNbO3 Strip Waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 49, 3693 (1978). [CrossRef]
  8. C. T. Mueller, Ph.D. Dissertation, U. Southern California (1983).
  9. See, for example, G. B. Hocker, W. K. Burns, “Mode Dispersion in Diffused Channel Waveguides by the Effective Index Method,” Appl. Opt. 16, 113 (1977). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. E. M. Conwell, “Modes in Optical Waveguides Formed by Diffusion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 328 (1973). [CrossRef]
  11. D. F. Nelson, V. J. McKenna, “Electromagnetic Modes of Anisotropic Dielectric Waveguides at p-n Junctions,” J. Appl. Phys. 38, 4057 (1967). [CrossRef]
  12. L. M. Johnson, F. J. Leonberger, “Low-loss LiNbO3 Wave-guide Bends with Coherent Coupling,” Opt. Lett. 8, 111 (1983). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. C. T. Mueller, C. T. Sullivan, W. S. C. Chang, D. G. Hall, J. D. Zino, R. R. Rice, “An Analysis of the Coupling of an Injection Laser Diode to a Planar LiNbO3 Waveguide,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 363 (1980). [CrossRef]
  14. W. K. Burns, P. H. Klein, E. J. West, “Ti Diffusion in Ti: LiNbO3 Planar and Channel Optical Waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 50, 6175 (1979). [CrossRef]
  15. R. J. Holmes, D. M. Smyth, “Titanium Diffusion into LiNbO3 as a Function of Stoichiometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 55, 3531 (1984). [CrossRef]
  16. R. V. Schmidt, I. P. Kaminow, “Metal-Diffused Optical Waveguides in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 458 (1974). [CrossRef]
  17. Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (CRC Press, Cleveland, 1984–85).
  18. M. Minakata, S. Saito, M. Shibata, S. Miyazawa, “Precise Determination of Refractive-Index Changes in Ti-Diffused LiNbO3 Optical Waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 49, 4677 (1978). [CrossRef]
  19. D. Marcuse, Light Transmission Optics (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1982).
  20. M. V. Hobden, J. Warner, “The Temperature Dependence of the Refractive Indices of Pure Lithium Niobate,” Phys. Lett. 22, 243 (1966). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
Fig. 4

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited