OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 24, Iss. 23 — Dec. 1, 1985
  • pp: 4172–4182

Ship perturbation of irradiance measurements at sea. 1: Monte Carlo simulations

Howard R. Gordon  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 24, Issue 23, pp. 4172-4182 (1985)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1423 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Most in-water irradiance and radiance measurements at sea are carried out by suspending an instrument from a hydrocable located relatively close to the ship, the presence of which can severely perturb the in-water light field. This paper describes Monte Carlo techniques which have been developed specifically to assess such perturbations. Sample computations of the perturbation to the upward and downward irradiances due to the presence of the ship are presented for the case of a homogeneous ocean. The results reveal situations in which the downward irradiance, in the case of collimated illumination, is relatively unperturbed, while large effects are observed in the case of diffuse illumination. Conversely, the upwelled irradiance just beneath the surface is seen to be strongly influenced by the ship’s presence for both types of illumination.

© 1985 Optical Society of America

Original Manuscript: April 19, 1985
Published: December 1, 1985

Howard R. Gordon, "Ship perturbation of irradiance measurements at sea. 1: Monte Carlo simulations," Appl. Opt. 24, 4172-4182 (1985)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. D. G. Collins, W. G. Blattner, M. B. Wells, H. G. Horak, “Backward Monte Carlo Calculations of the Polarization Characteristics of the Radiation Emerging from Spherical-Shell Atmospheres,” Appl. Opt. 11, 2684 (1972). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. C. A. Adams, G. W. Kattawar, “Radiative Transfer in Spherical Shell Atmospheres 1. Rayleigh Scattering,” Icarus 35, 139 (1978). [CrossRef]
  3. K. M. Case, P. F. Zweifel, Linear Transport Theory (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1967).
  4. K. M. Case, “Transfer Problems and the Reciprocity Principle,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 29, 651 (1957). [CrossRef]
  5. P. Moon, D. E. Spencer, “Illumination from a Non-Uniform Sky,” Illum. Eng. N.Y. 37, 707 (1942).
  6. S. Chandrasekhar, Radiative Transfer (Oxford U. P., London, 1950).
  7. H. C. van de Hulst, Multiple Light Scattering (Academic, New York, 1980).
  8. M. H. Kalos, “On the Estimation of Flux at a Point by Monte Carlo,” Nucl. Sci. Eng. 16, 111 (1963).
  9. G. N. Plass, G. W. Kattawar, F. E. Catchings, “Matrix Operator Theory of Radiative Transfer. 1: Raleigh Scattering,” Appl. Opt. 12, 314 (1973). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. G. W. Kattawar, T. J. Humphreys, G. N. Plass, “Radiative Transfer in an Atmosphere Ocean System: A Matrix Operator Approach,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 160, 123 (1978).
  11. J. Spanier, E. M. Gelbard, Monte Carlo Principles and Neutron Transport Problems (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1969).
  12. J. E. Hansen, “Exact and Approximate Solution for Multiple Scattering by Cloudy and Hazy Planetary Atmospheres,” J. Atmos. Sci. 26, 478 (1969). [CrossRef]
  13. J. F. Potter, “The Delta Function Approximation in Radiative Transfer Theory,” J. Atmos. Sci. 27, 943 (1970). [CrossRef]
  14. H. R. Gordon, “Simple Calculation of the Diffuse Reflectance of the Ocean,” Appl. Opt. 12, 2803 (1973). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. Tanaka, T. Nakajima, “Effects of Oceanic Turbidity and Index of Refraction of Hydrosols on the Flux of Solar Radiation in the Atmosphere–Ocean System,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 18, 93 (1977). [CrossRef]
  16. H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, M. M. Jacobs, “Computed Relationships Between the Inherent and Apparent Optical Properties of a Flat Homogeneous Ocean,” Appl. Opt. 14, 417 (1975). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. H. R. Gordon, A. Y. Morel, Remote Assessment of Ocean Color for Interpretation of Visible Satellite Imagery: A Review (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1983).
  18. H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, “Atmospheric Effects in the Remote Sensing of Phytoplankton Pigments,” Boundary Layer Meteorol. 18, 299 (1980). [CrossRef]
  19. D. K. Clark, “Phytoplankton Pigment Algorithms for the Nimbus-7 CZCS,” in Oceanography from Space, J. F. R. Gower, Ed. (Plenum, New York, 1981), pp. 227–237. [CrossRef]
  20. H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, W. W. Broenkow, “Phytoplankton Pigment Concentrations in the Middle Atlantic Bight: Comparison of Ship Determinations and CZCS Estimates,” Appl. Opt. 22, 20 (1983). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. R. C. Smith, C. R. Booth, J. L. Star, “Oceanographic Biooptical Profiling System,” Appl. Opt. 23, 2791 (1984). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited