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Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Vol. 24, Iss. 24 — Dec. 15, 1985
  • pp: 4326–4333

Gradient-index profile control by field-assisted ion exchange in glass

Susan N. Houde-Walter and Duncan T. Moore  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 24, Issue 24, pp. 4326-4333 (1985)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.24.004326


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Abstract

Field-assisted ion exchange has been used to extend the profile repertoire and to speed the ion exchange process for gradient-index (GRIN) applications. Profiles are predicted for various ion mobility ratios and time-varying electric fields. Profile control is demonstrated by silver for sodium exchange in an aluminosilicate glass. Diffusion depths of the order of a millimeter are obtained in a few hours using modest field strengths.

© 1985 Optical Society of America

History
Original Manuscript: January 1, 1985
Published: December 15, 1985

Citation
Susan N. Houde-Walter and Duncan T. Moore, "Gradient-index profile control by field-assisted ion exchange in glass," Appl. Opt. 24, 4326-4333 (1985)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-24-24-4326


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References

  1. D. T. Moore, “Gradient-Index Optics: A Review,” Appl. Opt. 19, 1035 (1980). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. P. O. McLaughlin et al., “Design of a Gradient-Index Binocular Objective,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 237, 369 (1980).
  3. L. G. Atkinson, S. N. Houde-Walter, D. T. Moore, D. P. Ryan, J. M. Stagaman, “Design of a Gradient-Index Photographic Objective,” Appl. Opt. 21, (1982). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. Forer, “Gradient-Index Eyepiece Design,” Appl. Opt. 22, 407 (1983). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. L. G. Atkinson, J. D. Downie, D. T. Moore, J.M. Stagaman, L. L. Voci, “Gradient-Index Wide-Angle Photographic Objective Design,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1735 (1984). [CrossRef]
  6. M. Abou-El-Liel, A. R. Cooper, “Analysis of Field-Assisted Binary Ion Exchange,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 62, 390 (1979). [CrossRef]
  7. H. J. Lilienhof et al., “Field Induced Index Profiles of Multi-mode Ion-Exchanged Strip Waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1877 (1982). [CrossRef]
  8. J. R. Engel, M. Tomozawa, “Nernst-Einstein Relation in Sodium Silicate Glass,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 58, (1975). [CrossRef]
  9. T. Kaneko, H. Yamamoto, “On Ionic Penetration of Silver Film into Glasses under the Electric Field,” in Proceedings, Tenth International Congress in Glass, Kyoto, Japan (1974), pp. 8–79–8–86.
  10. J. Crank, The Mathematics of Diffusion (Oxford U. P.London, 1975), p. 175.
  11. D. T. Moore, “Design of Singlets with Continuously Varying Indices of Refraction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 886 (1971). [CrossRef]
  12. R. H. Doremus, Glass Science (Wiley, New York, 1973), p. 148.
  13. H. Bloom, The Chemistry of Molten Salts (Benjamin, New York, 1967).
  14. Gradient Index Optical Glass Lenses, Annual Report, July 1975 to Dec. 1976, NSF Research contract ENG 74-11993-A01, Principal Investigator: D. T. Moore.
  15. R. H. Doremus, “Exchange and Diffusion of Ions in Glass,” J. Phys. Chem. 68, 2212 (1964). [CrossRef]

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