OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 25, Iss. 11 — Jun. 1, 1986
  • pp: 1817–1825

Atmospheric turbulence-induced signal fades on optical heterodyne communication links

Kim A. Winick  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 25, Issue 11, pp. 1817-1825 (1986)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1074 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



The three basic atmospheric propagation effects, absorption, scattering, and turbulence, are reviewed. A simulation approach is then developed to determine signal fade probability distributions on heterodyne-detected satellite links which operate through naturally occurring atmospheric turbulence. The calculations are performed on both angle-tracked and nonangle-tracked downlinks, and on uplinks, with and without adaptive optics. Turbulence-induced degradations in communication performance are determined using signal fade probability distributions, and it is shown that the average signal fade can be a poor measure of the performance degradation.

© 1986 Optical Society of America

Original Manuscript: September 5, 1985
Published: June 1, 1986

Kim A. Winick, "Atmospheric turbulence-induced signal fades on optical heterodyne communication links," Appl. Opt. 25, 1817-1825 (1986)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. J. W. Strohbehn, “Introduction,” in Laser Beam Propagation in the Atmosphere, J. W. Strohbehn, Ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1978), pp. 1–7. [CrossRef]
  2. D. L. Fried, “Optical Heterodyne Detection of an Atmospherically Distorted Signal Wave Front,” Proc. IEEE 55, 57 (1967). [CrossRef]
  3. D. L. Fried, “Atmospheric Modulation Noise in an Optical Heterodyne Receiver,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-3, 213 (1967). [CrossRef]
  4. J. H. Churnside, C. M. McIntyre, “Signal Current Probability Distribution for Optical Heterodyne Receivers in the Turbulent Atmosphere. 1: Theory,” Appl. Opt. 17, 2141 (1978). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. H. Churnside, C. M. McIntyre, “Signal Current Probability Distribution for Optical Heterodyne Receivers in the Turbulent Atmosphere. 2: Experiment,” Appl. Opt. 17, 2148 (1978). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R. J. Noll, “Zernike Polynomials and Atmospheric Turbulence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 207 (1976). [CrossRef]
  7. J. E. Kaufmann, L. L. Jeromin, “Optical Heterodyne Intersatellite Links Using Semiconductor Lasers,” in IEEE GLOBE-COM '84, Convention Record, Atlanta, GA (26–29 Nov. 1984).
  8. E. J. McCartney, Absorption and Emission by Atmospheric Gases (Wiley, New York, 1983), Chap. 1.
  9. R. K. Long, “Atmospheric Absorption and Laser Radiation,” Bulletin 199 (Engineering Experiment Station, Ohio State U., Columbus, OH).
  10. L. S. Rothman, “High Resolution Atmospheric Transmittance Radiance: hitran and the Data Compilation,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 142, 2 (1978).
  11. E. J. McCartney, Optics of the Atmosphere (Wiley, New York, 1976), pp. 20–26.
  12. F. X. Kneizys et al., “Atmospheric Transmittance/Radiance: Computer Code lowtran 5,” AFGL Report AFGL-TR-80-0067 (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Lexington, MA, 1980), AD No. A088215.
  13. L. W. Fredrick, R. H. Baker, Astronomy(Van Nostrand, New York, 1976), p. 85.
  14. D. L. Fried, “Optical Resolution Through a Randomly Inhomogeneous Medium for Very Long and Very Short Exposures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1372 (1966). [CrossRef]
  15. R. M. Gagliardi, S. Karp, Optical Communications(Wiley, New York, 1976), Chap. 6.
  16. V. A. Banakh, G. M. Krekov, V. L. Mironov, S. S. Khmelevtsov, R.Sh. Tsvik, “Focused-Laser Beam Scintillations in the Turbulent Atmosphere,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 516 (1974). [CrossRef]
  17. G. P. Massa, “Fourth-Order Moments of an Optical Field that has Propagated Through the Clear Turbulent Atmosphere,” M.S. Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (1975).
  18. D. L. Fried, “Anisoplanatism in Adaptive Optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 52 (1982). [CrossRef]
  19. V. I. Tatarski, Wave Propagation in a Turbulent Medium (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1961).
  20. M. Zelen, N. C. Severo, “Probability Functions,” in Handbook of Mathematical Functions, M. Abramowitz, I. Stegun, Eds. (Dover, New York, 1965), Chap. 26.
  21. I. Selin, Detection Theory (Princeton U.P., Princeton, NJ, 1965), pp. 23–28.
  22. W. B. Davenport, Probability and Random Processes (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1970), pp. 504–505.
  23. W. Feller, An Introduction to Probability Theory and Its Applications (Wiley, New York, 1966), Vol. 2, pp. 80–82.
  24. F. E. Hohn, Introduction to Linear Algebra (Macmillan, New York, 1972), Chap. 9.
  25. A. Kolmogorov, “Turbulence,” in Classic Papers in Statistical TheoryS. K. Friedlander, L. Topper, Eds. (Interscience, New York, 1961), pp. 151–155.
  26. D. L. Walters, “Atmospheric Modulation Transfer Function for Desert and Mountain Locations: r0 Measurements,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 406 (1981). [CrossRef]
  27. D. L. Fried, “Diffusion Analysis for the Propagation of Mutual Coherence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 961 (1968). [CrossRef]
  28. J. H. Shapiro, “Reciprocity of the Turbulent Atmosphere,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 492 (1971). [CrossRef]
  29. D. L. Fried, H. T. Yura, “Telescope-Performance Reciprocity for Propagation in a Turbulent Medium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 600 (1972). [CrossRef]
  30. R. F. Lutomirski, H. T. Yura, “Propagation of a Finite Optical Beam in an Inhomogeneous Medium,” Appl. Opt. 10, 1652 (1971). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968), pp. 57–62.
  32. G. A. Tyler, “Turbulence-Induced Adaptive-Optics Performance Degradation: Evaluation in the Time Domain,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 251 (1984). [CrossRef]
  33. K. A. Winick, “Signal Fade Probability Distributions for Optical Heterodyne Receivers on Atmospherically Distorted Satellite Links,” in IEEE GLOBECOM '84 Convention Record, Atlanta, GA (26–29 Nov. 1984).
  34. W. C. Lindsey, M. K. Simon, Telecommunication Systems Engineering (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1973), pp. 483–499.

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited