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Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 25, Iss. 12 — Jun. 15, 1986
  • pp: 1922–1929

Scratch-and-dig standard revisited

Matt Young  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 25, Issue 12, pp. 1922-1929 (1986)

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The scratch standard (MIL-O-13830A) is a cosmetic standard effected by a visual comparison with a set of secondary standards that are in turn evaluated by comparison with a set of master standards. Both manufacture and certification of the secondary standards are somewhat unreliable. This paper shows that they can be classified according to the relative power scattered at a relatively small angle and describes experiments with etched gratings that have the appearance of scratches but diffract light into a broad peak between 5 and 10° off the axis of the incident beam. Some prototypes have been classified both by comparison to the master standards and by a photoelectric measurement; agreement between the two methods is good. Such gratings, used as the secondary standards, should display less intersample variation than scribed or other artifacts. The paper concludes by presenting evidence that the original primary standards have been stable over a long time.

© 1986 Optical Society of America

Original Manuscript: January 16, 1986
Published: June 15, 1986

Matt Young, "Scratch-and-dig standard revisited," Appl. Opt. 25, 1922-1929 (1986)

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  1. Military Specification MIL-O-13830A (1963).
  2. H. E. Bennett, “Insensitivity of the Catastrophic Damage of Laser Optics to Dust and Other Surface Defects,” in Proceedings, Conference Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials, 1982, Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Spec. Publ. 669, 151 (1982).
  3. M. Young, “Scratch Standards Should Not Be Used to Predict Damage Thresholdin Proceedings, Conference Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials, 1982, Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Spec. Publ. 669, 151 (1982).
  4. L. R. Baker, “Microscope Image Comparator,” Opt. Acta. 31, 611 (1984). [CrossRef]
  5. J. M. Elson, H. E. Bennett, J. M. Bennett, Scattering from Optical Surfaces,” in Applied Optics and Optical Engineering, Vol. 7, R. R. Shannon, J. C. Wyant, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1979). [CrossRef]
  6. M. Young, “Objective Measurement and Characterization of Scratch Standards,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 362, 94 (1983).
  7. M. Young, “Can You Describe Optical Surface Quality with One or Two Numbers?Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 406, 12 (1983). See also transcript of workshop on optical specifications, pp. 119–131.
  8. M. Young, E. G. Johnson, R. Goldgraben, “Tunable Scratch Standards,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 525, 70 (1985).
  9. M. Young, E. G. Johnson, “Redefining the Scratch Standards,” Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Tech. Note 1080 (1985).
  10. E. G. Johnson, “Simulating the Scratch Standards for Optical Surfaces: Theory,” Appl. Opt. 22, 4056 (1983). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. Young, “Optics and Lasers, Including Fibers and Optical Waveguides,” (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1986).
  12. J. R. Goldgraben, J. Salerno, “Improvement of Manufacturing Techniques and Quality of Optical Scratch Standards for Fire Control Systems,” Contractor Report ARPAD-CR-85001, Army Research and Development Center, Dover, NJ (1985).
  13. M. Young, “The Scratch Standard Is Only a Performance Standard,” in Proceedings, Conference Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials (1985); also published in part in Laser Focus, 138, 140 (Nov.1985), and “The Scratch Standard Is Not a Performance Standard,” in Technical Digest, Optical Fabrication & Testing Workshop (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1985), paper ThAA4.
  14. J. H. McLeod, W. T. Sherwood, “A Proposed Method of Specifying Appearance Defects of Optical Parts,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 136 (1945). [CrossRef]
  15. M. V. Swain, “Microfracture about Scratches in Brittle Solids,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 366, 575 (1979). [CrossRef]
  16. J. A. Detrio, S. M. Miner, “Standardized Total-Integrated-Scatter Measurements of Optical Surfaces,” Opt. Eng. 24, 419 (1985). [CrossRef]
  17. E. L. Church, H. A. Jenkinson, J. M. Zavada, “Measurement of the Finish of Diamond-Turned Metal Surfaces by Differential Light Scattering,” Opt. Eng. 18, 125 (1979).

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