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Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 25, Iss. 12 — Jun. 15, 1986
  • pp: 1958–1961

Analytical expression for the standing wave intensity in photoresist

Chris A. Mack  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 25, Issue 12, pp. 1958-1961 (1986)

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When a thin dielectric film placed between two semi-infinite media is irradiated with monochromatic plane waves, a standing wave is produced in the film. An analytical expression for the standing wave intensity within the film is derived. This expression is then expanded to include the effects of other dielectric films on either side of the film or an inhomogeneous film. Applications of these expressions are given for photolithographic modeling.

© 1986 Optical Society of America

Original Manuscript: December 16, 1985
Published: June 15, 1986

Chris A. Mack, "Analytical expression for the standing wave intensity in photoresist," Appl. Opt. 25, 1958-1961 (1986)

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  1. S. Middlehoek, “Projection Masking, Thin Photoresist Layers and Interference Effects,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 14, 117 (Mar.1970).
  2. J. E. Korka, “Standing Waves in Photoresists,” Appl. Opt. 9, 969 (1970).
  3. D. F. Ilten, K. V. Patel, “Standing Wave Effects in Photoresist Exposure,” Image Technol. 9 (Feb/Mar.1971).
  4. D. W. Widmann, “Quantitative Evaluation of Photoresist Patterns in the 1-μm Range,” Appl. Opt. 14, 931 (1975).
  5. F. H. Dill, “Optical Lithography,” Trans. Electron Dev. ED-22, 440 (July1975).
  6. B. F. Griffing, P. R. West, “Contrast Enhanced Lithography,” Solid State Tech. 28, 152 (May1985).
  7. C. A. Mack, “PROLITH: A Comprehensive Optical Lithography Model,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 538, 207 (1985).
  8. P. H. Berning, “Theory and Calculations of Optical Thin Films,” Physics of Thin Films, George Hass, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1963), pp. 69–121.

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